Siman 202 Seifim 18
1. The beracha for fruit that grows on trees is בורא פרי העץ, except for wine for which the beracha is בורא פרי הגפן, whether fresh or cooked, and even if it is made into קונדיטון which is wine mixed with honey and pepper. If one mixed wine and beer the beracha is determined by the majority ingredient, if the majority is wine the beracha is בורא פרי הגפן and if the majority is beer the beracha is שהכל.
2. The correct beracha for immature grapes that have not yet reached the size of a white bean is בורא פרי האדמה . Once it reaches the size of a white bean or larger the beracha is בורא פרי העץ. Since we do not know the size of a white bean we always recite the beracha of בורא פרי האדמה until it is very large. When it comes to other trees once the fruit has developed the beracha is בורא פרי העץas long as it is not bitter or sour to the degree that it is not edible even with difficulty, because in such a case no beracha is recited. According to some opinions one does not recite בורא פרי העץ on carob until they have a chain-like appearance and similarly regarding olives until the blossom has grown around them. Before these stages the beracha is בורא פרי האדמה and this opinion is primary.
3. Regarding fruit seeds, if they are sweet one recites בורא פרי העץ but if they are bitter one does not recite any beracha. If the taste could be improved by cooking them over a fire the beracha is שהכל.
4. Regarding olive oil, if one drank it as is one does not recite any beracha since it is harmful. If one ate it with bread no beracha is recited since the bread is the primary food and one recites the beracha on the primary food which thereby exempts the subordinate food. If one drank it with מי סלק”א (called אניגרון) so that not only is it not harmful but it is beneficial for the throat, if one’s throat was hurting the oil is considered the primary ingredient and one recites בורא פרי העץ but if one did not have medicinal effects in mind but rather intended to eat it, the אניגרון is the primary ingredient and the beracha is recited on the שהכל). אניגרון)
5. Bitter almonds that are eaten when small require a בורא פרי העץbut when they are large no beracha is recited since they are harmful. The rationale is that when they are small they are eaten for their shell which is not bitter, but when they are large they are primarily eaten for what is inside, which is bitter. If one makes it edible with fire or some other means he should recite בורא פרי העץ.
6. Regarding the צלף (the caperbush is a tree whose leaves are edible and the leaves also have date-looking berries grow on them. The אביונות are the fruit of the tree and the וקפריסין is the shell that grows around the fruit, similar to the shell of nuts, on the leaves, date-looking berries and וקפריסין one recites בורא פרי האדמה and on the האביונות which are the primary fruit of the tree one recites בורא פרי העץ.
7. Regarding dates that were mashed into a dough-like mass and one removed the pits, the beracha does not change and one recites בורא פרי העץ and afterwards מעין שלש. Accordingly, the same is true regarding לטווערן called פאווידל”א the beracha is בורא פרי העץ, but some opinions maintain that one should recite שהכל.It is correct to be cautious l’chatchila and recite שהכל but if one recited בורא פרי העץ he fulfilled his obligation since that appears to be the primary opinion.
8. One recites שהכלon honey that oozes from dates and the same is true regarding other liquids that ooze from different varieties of fruit that one recites שהכל except for olives and grapes.
9. סופי ענבים which will never ripen and on נובלות which are dates that ripened but were burned by the heat and dried up, the correct beracha is שהכל.
10.Fruit that was soaked or cooked in water, even if the taste of the fruit was infused into the water the beracha remains שהכל . The Rosh wrote that it is possible that if the taste of the fruit entered the water one should recite בורא פרי העץ.
11. One who drinks the water in which one soaked raisins or figs or the water in which they were cooked recites שהכל and fulfills his obligation even according to the Rosh, but regarding the beracha acharona it is
unclear whether one recites בורא נפשות or מעין שלש in accordance with the Rosh’s position. Therefore, one who is G-d fearing should only drink these beverages in a meal or eat a fruit from the seven species and drink water so that he will have to recite מעין שלשand בורא נפשות. If one separated the liquid from the raisins it is considered wine and one recites בורא פרי הגפןand מעין שלש. This assumes that the raisins retained some liquid so that if one crushed them the “honey” would emerge but if one presses them and no liquid “honey” comes out this halacha does not apply.
12. Fruit that is eaten raw as well as cooked, for example, apples and pears, whether they are eaten raw or whether they are eaten cooked one recites בורא פרי העץ . If it is not common to eat a fruit raw and it is only eaten cooked when eating it raw one recites שהכל and when eating it cooked one recites בורא פרי העץ.
13.When one eats a fully developed nut fried in honey called נואינד”ו (Which we call נויאי”ט ) one recites בורא פרי העץ.
14. When eating a soft nut cooked in honey which is called נוס מושקאד”ה one recites שהכל. And this refers to one eating nuts that are still green that are cooked in honey and the beracha one recites is שהכל.
15. One recites שהכל on sugar as does one who sucks sweet canes.
16.On dry pepper or ginger or clove-gilly flower (called נעגלי”ך) and any other similar food eaten as part of a mixture one does not recite any beracha.
17. One recites בורא פרי העץ on nutmeg and on cinnamon (called צימרינ”ד) one recitesבורא פרי האדמה.
18. When eating pepper and ginger that are moist one recites בורא פרי האדמה. Any fruit that one knows is the primary fruit of that tree one recites בורא פרי העץ and if it is not the primary fruit one recites בורא פרי האדמה. If one is uncertain whether it is the primary fruit or not one should recite האדמה and if one doesn’t know what a food is he should recite שהכל .
Siman 203 Seifim 8
1. On fruit that grows from the ground one recites בורא פרי האדמה.
2. On berries that grow from a bush one recites בורא פרי האדמה. Something is considered a tree when it produces leaves from the branches but when the leaves are produced from the roots it is not considered a tree. Since the branches of berry bushes die altogether during the winter months and then grow again from the roots, the beracha is בורא פרי האדמה .
3. One recites בורא פרי האדמה when eating מאוזי”ש [bananas].
4. On fruit that grows on infertile trees one recites שהכל.
5. If one eats myrtle berries the beracha is שהכלeven if they ripened and became edible fruit.
6. If one made a confection out of ginger when it was moist the beracha is בורא פרי האדמה. It seems that the same halacha is true if one made the confection when the ginger was dry since the process makes it edible so that the ginger is the primary ingredient and thus one recites בורא פרי האדמה.
7. When one grinds spices and mixes them with sugar the spices remain the primary ingredient and one recites the beracha on the mixture that one would recite on the food.
8. The beracha on raddish is בורא פרי האדמה.
Siman 204 Seifim 13
1. On foods that do not grow from the ground, for example, meat from domesticated animals; undomesticated animals; fowl; fish; eggs; milk; cheese; or moldy bread; a cooked dish whose appearance has changed and spoiled; novlos, which are dates that ripened and were burned by the heat and dried; grasshoppers; salt; brine; soup; truffles or mushrooms or sprouts which is the soft growth of the tree each year called פלמיט”ו; grapevine shoots; sweet almonds eaten with their shells when they are still soft; chaziz, which is fodder; raw squash; barley flour; date beer; barley beer; barley water that one cooks for people who are ill; wild herbs that are not planted; sheves, called אניט”ו (called anise); caraway and coriander (which are used to add flavor rather than to eat) and on vinegar that was diluted with water so that one can drink it, one recites שהכל.
2. When one drinks vinegar one does not recite a beracha since it is harmful.
3. If it smells like vinegar but tastes like wine it is considered wine and one recites בורא פרי הגפן.
4. If people refrain from drinking wine because it is vinegary, one does not recite בורא פרי הגפן(rather one recites שהכל).
5. One recites בורא פרי הגפן when drinking wine sediment. If one added three parts water and ended up with four parts of liquid, the beverage is diluted wine, and one recites בורא פרי הגפן, but if one found less than this amount, even though it tastes like wine, it is mere sharpness and one only recitesשהכל . This is true regarding their wines that were strong, but our wines that are not as strong even if one added three parts water and ended up with four parts liquid one does not recite בורא פרי הגפן. It would seem that this matter is determined by the dilution rate of wine in that place as long as the wine is not mixed with six parts water since if that is the case it is nullified altogether.
6.Temed, made by pouring water over grape seeds, shares the same halacha as wine sediment. This is true when it was pressed with a beam but if it was merely crushed by foot, even if one poured three measures of water and only found three measures of water or even less one recites בורא פרי הגפן since it is wine and the water was merely absorbed by the grapeskins and the wine is what was extracted. If one added figs to strengthen the taste of the wine, even if the grape peels constitute the majority of the mixture, the figs are still at full strength and one does not recite בורא פרי הגפן.
8. Any food or drink that one consumes for medicinal purposes, if it tastes good and is pleasing to the palate, one recites a beracha before and after. If one is forced to eat or drink, one does not recite a beracha even though it is pleasing to the palate since one was forced.
9. If one ate a prohibited food or beverage because of danger he must recite a beracha before and after eating.
10. Bee honey is the same as other honey and one recites שהכל.
11. When eating חבושים [quince],גינדא”ש [cherries], rose or other fruits and herbs that one makes into a confection with honey, the fruit and herbs are the primary ingredient and the honey is subordinate, even if the fruit or herbs were ground into very fine pieces. Therefore, when eating חבושים and גינדא”ש one recites בורא פרי העץ and when eating herbs בורא פרי האדמה , and on rose one also recites בורא פרי האדמה. When eating any confection that healthy people do not eat other than for its medicinal effects one recites שהכל.
12. Any time a mixture of food contains a primary ingredient and a subordinate ingredient one recites the beracha on the primary ingredient which exempts one from reciting a beracha on the subordinate ingredient. If a food is added as a binder, to generate a smell or to give color to a food it is subordinate but if it was added to give taste to the food it is considered the primary ingredient. Accordingly, if one added fat wheat to cooked honey so that the honey binds together to make a sweet food one does not recite מזונות since the honey is the primary ingredient. It would seem that the principle that if one added food to give taste it is considered the primary ingredient is limited to where that food has substance and is important but spices that one adds to a confection, even though it is added to provide taste one does not recite a beracha on it even though it gives taste since it is nullified since its quantity is so small. For this reason the custom is to recite the beracha on the confection rather than on the spices.
13. Any time one is uncertain what beracha to recite on a food one should recite שהכל .
Siman 205 Seifim 5
1. When eating vegetables one recites בורא פרי האדמה even if they were cooked. Similarly, regarding fruit and beans that are eaten raw and cooked one recites after they were cooked the same beracha one recites before they were cooked. Regarding squash, beets, cabbage and other foods that are better when eaten cooked than when eaten raw when eaten raw one recites שהכל and when eaten cooked one recites בורא פרי האדמה. When eating תומי (garlic) and כרתי (leek) that are raw one recites האדמה but after they are cooked one recites שהכל because cooking changes it for the worse. Even if they were cooked with meat and improved the improvement is not due to itself; rather it is due the presence of the meat.
2. When eating the liquid in which vegetables were cooked one recites the beracha that one recites on those vegetables even though it only contains the taste of the vegetable. This is true if the vegetables were not cooked with meat but if they were cooked with meat one recites שהכל .
3. If one squeezes a fruit the beracha of שהכל is recited on the liquid.
4. If one cut it into small pieces the beracha does not change.
5. When eating raw lefes one recites שהכל but if it was cooked or pickled with vinegar or mustard one recites בורא פרי האדמה.
Siman 206 Seifim 7
1. If one recited בורא פרי האדמה on a tree fruit he has fulfilled his obligation, but if one recited בורא פרי העץ on a vegetable he did not fulfill his obligation. Therefore, if one is uncertain whether something is a tree fruit or a vegetable he should recite בורא פרי האדמה. If one recites שהכל on any food, even bread and wine he fulfilled his obligation.
2. If one had vegetables and fruit in front of him and he recited האדמה with the intent to also exempt his obligation to recite a beracha on the fruit he fulfilled his obligation.
3. Regarding all of these berachos one must not interrupt between the beracha and eating more than k’dei dibur. One must hear his recitation but if he did not hear his recitation he fulfilled his obligation as long as he articulated the words. Berachos may be recited in any language. One may not recite a beracha naked unless his ervah is covered. This ruling applies for men but when it comes to women she may sit with her bottom on the ground since that covers her ervah (See above siman 74:4). Even if one is not naked but his heart can see his ervah or if his head is uncovered he may not recite a beracha.
4. When reciting a beracha before eating or smelling something, one must hold it in his right hand.
5. One may not recite a beracha on a food or drink until it is in front of him. If one recited the beracha and then the food was brought out one must repeat the beracha but if one recited the beracha when a food was in front of him and then more of that variety of food was brought out or another variety that shares the same beracha as the first food he does not have to recite a second beracha. It is proper for one to l’chatchila have in mind whatever food will be served.
6. One who took a fruit in his hand to eat and recited the beracha and then it fell and became lost or repulsive one must repeat the beracha even if the same type of food was present when he first recited the beracha but he did not have in mind to eat that food. One must say ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד for having said Hashem’s Name in vain. If when the food fell one had only said ברוך אתה ה ‘ but did not yet say אלהינו he should conclude with the words, למדני חוקיך so it will seem as though one read a pasuk and it will not be considered as though he said Hashem’s Name in vain. One standing by a canal recites the beracha and drinks even though the water that he drinks was not in front of him when he recited the beracha since that was his original intent. See below siman 209:1 for the halacha if one recited a beracha in error.
Siman 207 Seifim 1
1. Regarding fruit that are not from the seven species, any fruit of the ground, vegetables, and any food that does not grow from the ground the beracha afterwards is בורא נפשות רבות. If one ate food from all of these different categories, he recites one beracha for all of them. This beracha concludes without Hashem’s Name and one should say ברוך חי העולמים.
Siman 208 Seifim 18
1. On the five species, i.e., grapes, figs, pomegranate, olives and dates one recites afterwards the beracha מעין שלש.
2. If one cooked the five grains or beat them and made from them a cooked dish, e.g. מעשה קדירה, הריפות, גרש, כרמל or דייסא, even if one later mixed them with a quantity of honey greater than the grain or if one added another ingredient in a quantity greater than the grain one recites בורא מיני מזונות and afterwards על המחיה. If, however, one added the grain to bind or solidify the food it is subordinate to that food.
3. When flour is added to almonds for someone who is ill, if one’s intent is to make a person feel full he should recite מזונות but if it is added to bind the food he does not recite מזונות. It is best to be stringent and to swallow it in a meal after המוציא and it will certainly be exempted.
4. If one ate raw grain or roasted kernels or cooked them and they remain whole, one recites בורא פרי האדמה and afterwards בורא נפשות. The reason one recites בורא פרי האדמה before eating is that wheat and the like are edible in this manner but one who eats barley kernels, even if they were roasted over a fire recites שהכל since they are only edible with great difficulty. This is the implication of Rashba who equates wheat and barley only regarding the beracha acharona but not for the beracha rishona. Tosafos is uncertain whether one recites afterwards מעין שלש, therefore he concludes that it is best to eat it in a meal so that birkas hamazon will exempt it.
5. The beracha on flour, even wheat flour, is שהכל and afterwards one recites בורא נפשות. It doesn’t matter whether it was ground very fine or whether it was minimally ground and retains the taste of wheat, nor does it matter whether it is flour made from roasted kernels.
6. If one cooked (meaning cooked for an extended period of time) flour from one of the five grains and mixed it with water or other liquid, if it is thick so that it is edible and chewable (meaning one can grind it in one’s teeth) one recites בורא מיני מזונות and afterwards על המחיה but if it is fluid enough to be drinkable one recites שהכל and בורא נפשות.
7. Someone who eats rice recites האדמה פרי בורא before eating and נפשות בורא afterwards. If it
was cooked until it crumbled was cooked or if it was ground and made into bread, one recites מיני בורא
מזונות and afterwards נפשות בורא. This holds true if one did not mix in any ingredients other than
rice, but if one mixed it into another cooked food and there is a greater volume of that other
food one recites the beracha for that other cooked food. cooked food.
8. On bread made from millet, פליז “ו or other variety of beans one recites שהכל and afterwards בורא
נפשות. If one . makes a cooked dish from other beans, if they remain whole and are as good cooked as they are raw one recites האדמה פרי בורא. If they crumbled entirely or if they are not as good cooked as they are raw, one recites שהכל
9. If one mixed millet flour and flour from other beans with flour from the five grains and cooked them, one recites בורא מיני מזונות and afterwards על המחיה. If one made it into bread one recites המוציא and ברכת המזון. This is true only if there is enough flour from the five grains that one could eat an olive’s volume of grain within achilas pras but if there is not that much grain one does not recite afterwards ברכת המזון; rather before eating he recites המוציא since the food tastes like bread even though one will not eat an olive’s volume within k’dei achilas pras and afterwards one recites על המחיה. If it was cooked in a pot one recites beforehand בורא מיני מזונות and afterwards בורא נפשות.
10. When reciting the beracha מעין שלש on fruit from outside of Eretz Yisroel the beracha concludes על הארץ ועל הפירות and on fruit from Eretz Yisroel one concludes על הארץ ועל פירותיה. One who is outside of Eretz Yisroel who eats fruit from Eretz Yisroel also concludes על פירותיה.
11.When saying מעין שלש on wine one does not conclude על הגפן ועל פרי הגפן rather one concludes על הארץ ועל פרי הגפן or על הארץ ועל הפירות.
12.One mentions the event of the day of Shabbos, Yom Tov and Rosh Chodesh but not Chanukah or Purim. If one ate fruit from the seven species, as well as cake and drank wine one should incorporate all of these foods into a single beracha. One first mentions המחיה and then הגפן followed by העץ and one should say: על המחיה ועל הכלכלה ועל הגפן ועל פרי הגפן ועל העץ ועל פרי העץ and should conclude: על הארץ ועל המחיה ועל פרי הגפן ועל הפירות.
13. If one ate fruit from the seven species and apples it is unnecessary to recite בורא נפשות on the apples since they are included in the beracha of על העץ being that they are also fruit of the tree. If one ate apples and drank wine one must recite בורא נפשות on the apples and certainly if one ate meat or vegetables and drank wine or ate fruit of the seven species one must recite a separate beracha for each food. The same halacha is true when one ate meat or fish and then ate food from the five grains the beracha of על המחיה does not cover the meat and fish.
14. If one drank wine and recited בורא פרי הגפן and is eating grapes he must recite בורא פרי העץ . Similarly, regarding the beracha acharona he must mention על העץ ועל פרי העץ .
15. If, bedieved, one recites בורא פרי הגפן on grapes or afterwards one recited על הגפן he has fulfilled his obligation.
16. If one drank wine and water he does not recite בורא נפשות on the water since the beracha on the wine exempts it the same as the beracha rishona on wine exempts one from reciting a beracha on other beverages.
17. Birkas hamazon does not exempt one from recitingמעין שלשה , e.g. if one ate דייסאbirkas hamazon will not fulfill one’s obligation. When it comes to wine birkas hamazon will satisfy one’s obligation, meaning, if onerecited birkas hamazon after drinking wine instead of על הגפן he fulfilled his obligation. Similarly, if one recited birkas hamazon on dates rather than על העץ he satisfied his obligation. Even if one only recited ברכת הזן his obligation was fulfilled whether he drank wine or whether he ate dates. If he realizes before finishing ברכת הזן he should say:שהנחלת לאבותינו ארץ חמדה טובה ורחבה and conclude with the wording of מעין שלש.
18. One may not add as a result of an uncertainty additional words to מעין שלש even though one does not add Hashem’s Name or reference to His Kingdom. (For example, if one drank a beverage, and is uncertain whether he should recite על הגפן or בורא נפשות he should not eat a food that requires בורא נפשות and something that requires על העץ and then include על הגפן out of doubt.)
Siman 209 Seifim 3
1. If one took a cup of beer or water and said the words מלך העולם… ברוך אתה with the intent to say שהכלand then mistakenly said בורא פרי הגפן he is not required to repeat the beracha since when he mentioned Hashem’s Name and His Kingdom which are the main part of the beracha he had in mind the correct beracha. According to some if one took a cup of beer or water thinking that it is wine and said מלך העולם… ברוך אתה with the intent to say בורא פרי הגפן and then remembered that it is beer or water and concluded שהכל he fulfilled his mitzvah. Certainly if one was holding wine and he thought it was water and began the beracha with the intent to recite שהכל and then remembered and concluded בורא פרי הגפן he fulfilled his obligation since had he concluded with שהכל he would have also fulfilled his obligation.
2. If one took a cup of beer or water and recited ברוך אתה…בורא פרי הגפן and within k’dei dibur realized he erred and said שהכל נהיה בדברו so that he said ברוך אתה…בורא פרי הגפן שהכל נהיה בדברו he fulfilled his obligation. If others were also drinking and had wine in front of them and he also had wine in mind thinking that his cup contained wine and recited בורא פרי הגפן and then discovers that his cup contains water or beer, when he later drinks wine it is unnecessary for him to recite a beracha and he satisfied his obligation with the beracha he recited on his cup even though it was recited in error, since he did have in mind to drink wine and he discharged the obligation of others who were drinking there. For this reason, his beracha is considered a beracha.
3. If one is uncertain whether he recited a beracha or not, he does not recite the beracha, neither a beracha before eating nor a beracha after eating except for birkas hamazon.
Siman 210 Seifim 1
1. If one eats less than an olive’s volume of bread or some other food or if someone drinks less than a revi’is of wine or some other beverage he must recite the appropriate beracha before consuming the food or drink but afterwards he does not recite any beracha. Some are uncertain whether one who eats an entire entity, e.g. a grape or pomegranate berry, recites a beracha afterwards even though it is not the volume of an olive. Therefore, it is appropriate to avoid eating an entity that is smaller than an olive’s volume. An item is not considered an entity unless he ate it as is but if the seed is removed from the entity it is not considered an entity. There are authorities who are uncertain regarding the beracha acharona for wine whether one recites it if one consumed an olive’s volume. Therefore, one should drink either less than an olive’s volume or at least a revi’is.
Siman 211 Seifim 2
1. If one has many varieties of fruit that share the same beracha and one of the fruits is from the seven species, it takes precedence even though it is not the one that he prefers to eat. If none of the fruit are from the seven species, he should recite the beracha on the one that he prefers to eat. If there are foods that do not share the same beracha, even if one of them is one of the seven species, e.g. raddish and olives, one may eat first whichever one he chooses, even if it is not preferred. According to some authorities in this case one should give precedence to the one that he prefers. A food is “preferred” if it is the food that he generally prefers even if at this time he prefers the other food.
2. According to Rambam if one food was more preferred, regardless of whether the foods share the same beracha or not and regardless of whether or not one of the foods is from the seven species one gives precedence to the food that is more preferred at that moment. If one does not prefer one over the other and one of the foods is from the seven species one should recite the beracha on that food first.
Siman 212 Seifim 2
1. Anytime a food contains a primary ingredient and a subordinate ingredient (meaning unimportant) one recites the beracha on the primary food and this exempts the subordinate food for its beracha rishona as well as its beracha acharona. This is true not only when the primary food is mixed with the subordinate food but even when each food is by itself. Even bread which is the most important food, if it is subordinate to another food, e.g. one is eating salty fish and eats some bread so that it won’t hurt his throat he recites the beracha on the fish and exempts the bread since it is subordinate. Some maintain that if the subordinate food is more preferred one should recite the beracha on that food and then recite the beracha on the primary food. The principle that one recites the beracha on the primary food and exempts the subordinate food applies when they are eaten together or when one eats the primary food first but if one eats the subordinate food first, e.g. one wants a drink but decides to eat something first so that he does not drink on an empty stomach or one who eats cherry pits to sweeten the taste of a drink one recites a beracha on that food first even though it is subordinate to the drink but one only recites שהכל on that food since it is subordinate to the other food.
2. When a confection is placed on thin crackers the crackers are subordinate to the confection since it is well known that one’s intent is not to eat the bread.
Siman 213 Seifim 3
1. Regarding fruit and other foods except for bread and wine, when two or more people are eating together one person recites the beracha for the other/s. Although it is not necessary for them to be reclining they must be sitting and only when eating bread and wine is it necessary for the people to be reclining. Nowadays, sitting is comparable to their reclining. Accordingly, for us there is no difference between bread and wine and all other foods since even when people sit to eat bread one person recites the beracha on behalf of the other/s. When the people are not sitting each person recites the beracha for himself even for other foods. The earlier ruling that one person recites the beracha for others when eating foods other than bread is limited to the beracha rishona but regarding the beracha acharona they must divide and each person recites the beracha for himself since there is no zimun for those who ate fruit. Some authorities maintain that for all foods other than bread and wine reclining is ineffective and the same would be true for us in regards to sitting. Therefore, the custom nowadays is for each person to recite the beracha for himself.
2. The one reciting the beracha cannot discharge the obligation of others unless he will eat or drink with them and then they discharge their obligation by listening and concentrating on his beracha even if they do not answer .אמן
3. One does not fulfill his obligation to recite a beracha when listening to another person even if he answers אמן unless he hears the beracha from beginning to end and had in mind to discharge his obligation and the one who recited the beracha had in mind to discharge the obligation of the others.
Siman 214 Seifim 1
1. Any beracha that does not include a mention of Hashem’s Name and Kingdom is not a beracha. If the mention of Hashem’s Name or Kingdom were left out the beracha must be repeated. Even if only the word עולם was left out he must repeat the beracha since the word מלך by itself is not an expression of His Kingdom.
Siman 215 Seifim 4
1. One does not answer אמן to his own beracha unless it is after two or more that ends a series of berachos. The custom is to answer אמן after יהללוך and ישתבח . Some maintain that one only answers אמן after the beracha of בונה ירושלים in birkas hamazon and this is the common custom in these countries and one should not deviate from this practice. In places where they respond אמן after יהללוך and ישתבח one should also answer אמן after שומר עמו ישראל לעד.
2. If one hears a Jew recite any beracha, even if one did not hear the entire beracha from beginning to end and is not obligated to recite that beracha he must respond אמן. However, if the one who recites the beracha is an apikorus, a Cuthean, a child or even an adult who deviated from the proper wording of the beracha one does not answer אמן . One answers אמן to a gentile if one hears him recite a beracha.
3. The halacha that one does not answer אמן to the beracha of a child is limited to when he is learning to recite berachos with his rebbi since it is permitted to teach children to properly recite berachos even though they are recited l’vatalah while they are learning. When they recite a beracha to discharge their obligation, one answers אמן since they have reached the age of chinuch. The same is true when they read the haftorah on Shabbos.
4. One who recites an unnecessary beracha takes Hashem’s Name in vain and it is comparable to swearing in vain and it is prohibited to answer אמן to such a beracha.
Siman 216 Seifim 14
1. It is prohibited to benefit from a good smell until one recites a beracha but afterwards there is no beracha to recite
2. If the object that produces the smell is wood or similar to wood one recites: בורא עצי בשמים. If it is an herb one recites:
בורא עשבי בשמים. If it is neither wood nor an herb, e.g. musk, one recites: בורא מיני בשמים . If it is a fruit one recites: הנותן ריח טוב בפרות . This applies when it was taken to smell or to eat it and smell it but if it was taken to eat without intent to smell it one does not recite a beracha even though it produces a good smell. In all cases if one recited: בורא מיני בשמים he has satisfied his obligation, therefore, if one has an item about which he is uncertain he should recite: בורא מיני בשמים . On nutmeg, cinnamon, clove and other spices that are eaten one recites: .שנתן ריח טוב בפרות
3. When smelling rose, cinnamon which is Indian tree, rose water, frankincense, mastic and other similar items one recites: בורא עצי בשמים.
4. On balsam oil one recites:בורא עצי בשמים.
5. Olive oil that was pounded or ground to the point that it has a wafting smell one recites: .בורא עצי בשמים
6. Oil that was made fragrant like anointing oil, if it was made with wood one recites: בורא עצי בשמים . If herbs were used one recites: בורא עשבי בשמים and if contained wood and herbs one recites: בורא מיני בשמים . If one filtered it and removed the spice according to one opinion one recites: בורא שמן ערב and according to another opinion one does not recite any beracha whatsoever since the smell has no source. Since the matter is questionable one should refrain from smelling it.
7. On סמלק and חלפי דימא one recites: סמלק .בורא עצי בשמים according to some is rosemary and according to others is jasmine. According to some it is an herb that has three rows of leaves one above the other and each row contains three leaves. חלפי דימא is spikenard called אישפי”ק.
8. On סיגלי which are violets one recites: בורא עשבי בשמים.
9. נרגס which is narcissus and according to others is lily, if it grew in a garden one recites: בורא עצי בשמים and if it grows in the field one recites:בורא עשבי בשמים
10. If one has fragrant wood, fragrant herbs and other varieties of fragrances one should recite the appropriate beracha for each one. If one recited on all of them בורא מיני בשמים he discharged his obligation. Regarding the question of whether it is necessary to give precedent to the wood ahead of the herbs, see above siman 210.
11. If one was given myrtle and fragrant oil to smell and the berachos are the same one should recite the beracha on the myrtle which covers the oil. If they do not share the same beracha one should recite the beracha on the myrtle first.
12. One recites the beracha on incense (meaning spices that are placed on coals to generate a smell) once the smoke has risen before one smells the aroma. One should not recite the beracha before the smoke rises.
13. If the incense comes from wood one recites: בורא עצי בשמים , if it is an herb one recites: בורא עשבי בשמים and if it is from other sources one recites:בורא מיני בשמים
14. One who smells the esrog used for the mitzvah recites a beracha but there are authorities who maintain that one does not recite a beracha. Therefore, it is appropriate not to smell it. Some maintain that one who smells warm bread should recite: שנתן ריח טוב בפת but others maintain that one does not recite a beracha, therefore it is appropriate not to smell it.