(T) Siman 224-231: Berachot

          Siman 224 Seifim 13

1. One who sees markulis or other idol should say: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ שנתן ארך אפים לעוברי רצונו . If one sees it again within thirty days he does not repeat the beracha. Nowadays we do not recite this beracha since we are raised amongst them and see it all the time.

2. If one sees a place where idolatry was uprooted from Eretz Yisroel one recites ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ שעקר עבודת כוכבים מארצנו . If one is outside of Eretz Yisroel he says: שעקר עבודת כוכבים מהמקום הזה . In both cases one declares: כשם שעקרת אותה מהמקום הזה כן תעקר אותה מכל המקומות והשב לב עובדיהם לעבדך . If an idol was uprooted from one place and set up elsewhere, in the place it was uprooted one recites: שעקר עבודת כוכבים and in the place where it resettled one recites: שנתן ארך אפים

3.If one sees the evil Bavel he recites: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ שהחריב בבל הרשעה . If one sees Nevuchadnetzar’s house he recites: ברוך שהחריב ביתו של נבוכדנצר הרשע . If one sees the lion’s den or the fiery furnace he recites: ברוך שעשה נסים לצדיקים במקום הזה (See above siman 218:7).

4. If one sees in Bavel the place where animals that pass cannot move unless one places on it dirt from that place and it is a sign of a curse as the pasuk states: וטאטאתיה במטאטא (Meaning a broom השמד  (שקוב”י  one recites: .ברוך אומר ועושה ברוך גוזר ומקים

5. If one sees 600,000 Jews in one place he recites: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ חכם הרזים . If they are gentiles one recites: בושה אמכם מאד חפרה יולדתכם הנה אחרית גוים מדבר ציה וערבה

6. One who says a Jewish scholar recites: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ שחלק מחכמתו ליראיו

7. If one sees scholars from the nations of the world who are knowledgeable in the wisdom of the world one recites: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ שנתן מחכמתו לבשר ודם

8. Upon seeing kings one recites: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ שחלק מכבודו ליראיו . Upon seeing gentile kings one recites: ברוך שנתן מכבודו לבשר ודם.

9. It is a mitzvah to make an effort to see a king, even a gentile king.

10. One who see Jewish homes that are inhabited, for example from the time of the Second Bais HaMikdash recites: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ מציב גבול אלמנה . If it is seen in a state of ruin one recites: .ברוך דיו האמת

11. One who sees gentile homes that are inhabited one recites: בית גאים יסח ה’ . If it is seen in a state of ruin one recites: ק-ל נקמות ה’

12. One who sees Jewish graves recites: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ אשר יצר אתכם בדין וכו’ . Upon seeing gentile graves one recites: בושה אמכם וגו’.

13. Regarding all the berachos recited upon seeing something if one saw that thing again within thirty days one does not repeat the beracha.

           Siman 225 Seifim 10

1. One who sees a friend he hasn’t seen in thirty days recites שהחינו and if it is after 12 months he recites .מחיה מתים This applies when the friend is dear and one is happy to see him.

2. One who had never seen a friend but was in touch with him by writing letters does not recite the beracha, even
though he derives pleasure from seeing him. Some maintain that when one’s son becomes bar-mitzvah he recites: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ שפטרני מענשו של זה . It is best to recite the beracha without mentioning Hashem’s Name or
His Kingdom.

3. One who sees a new fruit that reappears every year recites שהחינו even if one sees it in his friend’s hand or on a tree. The custom, however, is not to recite it until he eats. One who recites the beracha when he sees the fruit does not lose. One does not recite the beracha until the fruit finished growing. If one did not recite the beracha the first time one saw the fruit he may recite the beracha the second time he sees the fruit.

4. If one recited the beracha when eating שירזא”ש when one subsequently eats גינדא”ש he repeats the beracha. They are two varieties of cherries like וויינקשי”ל and וקירק”ן and similar cases.

5. If one recited שהחינו on grapes he does not repeat the beracha when he drinks new wine.

6. On fruit that does not reappear each year one does not recite שהחינו even if it was a long time since one saw the
fruit. One does recite שהחינו on a fruit that reappears twice a year but if there is no set time for it to grow, the beracha is not recited. For that reason שהחינו is not recited on new vegetables since they remain in the ground the
entire year.

7. One does not recite the beracha on immature grapes, only when the bunch of grapes ripened. The same is true for each variety of fruit.

8. When one sees someone with a dark complexion, a גיחור who is someone with a red complexion, a לוקן , someone with a very white complexion, a קפח , someone with a large stomach and as a result of his thickness his stature appears bent, a midget, a דרקונה , someone filled with blisters, someone פתויי הראש , whose hairs are attached to one another, an elephant, or a monkey recites .ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ משנה הבריות

9. One who sees someone lame, with severed hands, blind, filled with sores, בהקנין , who is someone speckled with small dots, if they have these conditions from birth one recites משנה הבריות and if they developed the condition after birth one recites דין האמת . One opinion contends that this is true only if the person is distressed by his condition but if it is an idolater the beracha is not recited. The beracha is recited only the first time one sees the person since the unusual condition stands out in his mind. Some say that it can be recited every thirty days.

10. One who sees beautiful trees or creatures, even if it is an idolater or animal, recites: ברוך אתה ה’ שככה לו בעולמו . This beracha is recited only the first time and is not repeated on that creature or even another unless the second one is more beautiful.

          Siman 226 Seifim 1

1. One who goes out during the days of Nissan and sees tree that are flowering recites: ברות אתה ה’ וכו’ שלא חסר בעולמו כלום
וברא בו בריות טובות ואילנות טובות להנות בהם בני אדם . The beracha is recited only once a year and if one did not recite the beracha by the time the fruit developed one no longer recites the beracha.

          Siman 227 Seifim 3

1. On meteors, which is a star that shoots across the length of the sky from one place to another and produces light that stretches like a rod, earthquakes, lightening, thunder and winds that blow angrily one recites ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ עושה מעשה בראשית . If one wants he may recite: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ שכחו וגבורתו מלא עולם

2. If the clouds did not dissipate one fulfills his obligation with a single beracha but if the clouds dissipate between one lightening and the next or one thunder and the next one must repeat the beracha.

3. If one was sitting in the bathroom and heard thunder or saw lightening, if he can go out and recite the beracha with k’dei dibbur he fulfills his obligation but if not, he does not go out.

           Siman 228 Seifim 3

1. On seas, rivers, mountains, hills and deserts one recites: ‘ ברוך אתה ה וכו’ עושה מעשה בראשית . On the “Great Sea” which is the sea that one traverses to Eretz Yisroel and Egypt one recites: ‘ ברוך אתה ה’ וכו עושה ים הגדול

2. One does not recite the beracha on every river; rather it is recited only on the four rivers mentioned in the pesukim like Chidekel and Peras and this assumes that one sees it where its path has not been redirected by man.

3. One does not recite the beracha on every mountain and hill, it is recited only on a mountain or hill that is unusual and demonstrates Hashem’s strength.

           Siman 229 Seifim 2

1. One who sees a rainbow recites: ברוך אתה ה’ וכו’ זוכר הברית נאמן בבריתו וקים במאמרו . One may not gaze at a rainbow for an extended period of time.

2. One who sees the sun at the beginning of its cycle, which is every 28 years when the tekufah is at the beginning of the night of the fourth day, on that Wednesday morning one recites ברוך עושה מעשה בראשית . One also recites this
beracha when one sees the moon in its purity, the stars in their watches and the constellations in their proper time.
This occurs when the moon returns to the constellation of Aries at the beginning of the month and does not lean to
the north or south. Similarly, when each of the five remaining stars returns to the beginning of the constellation of Aries without leaning to the north or south and any time one sees Aries arise from the eastern edge.

           Siman 231 Seifim 1

1. If one cannot learn without sleeping in the afternoon he should sleep. When he wakes up it is unnecessary for him to recite א-לקי נשמה . Some maintain that before sleeping he should recite: ויהי נעם . However, he should not sleep too long since it is prohibited to sleep during the day more than a horse sleeps which is 60 breaths and even when one sleeps this small amount he should not do so for his pleasure; rather it should be so that he could have the strength to serve Hashem. Similarly, whenever one has pleasure in this world he should not have intention for personal pleasure; rather he should focus on serving Hashem as the pasuk states: בכל דרכיך דעהו which Chazal explain means that even regarding mundane activities such as eating, drinking, walking, sitting, arising, marital relations, conversation and all physical needs should be performed for the purpose of serving Hashem or as something that will lead to serving Hashem. Even if one is thirsty or hungry, if he eats or drinks for his own pleasure it is not praiseworthy; rather he should intend to eat and drink in order to live and serve Hashem. Similarly, it is prohibited to sit in the confidence of the just, stand in the place of righteous people or walk according to the advice of the perfect. If one does so for his own pleasure and to fulfill his yearnings and desires it is not praiseworthy unless it is done for the sake of Heaven. The same is true with regards to sleeping. Not only when a person can engage in Torah and mitzvos should he not sleep for his own pleasure but even when he is tired and needs to sleep to rest from his exhaustion if his intent is his own pleasure it is not praiseworthy. Rather, his intent should be to give rest to his eyes and body for his health so that he should not be confused when he studies Torah as a result of sleep deprivation. When it comes to marital relations, even during the time that the Torah instructs a couple to be together if one’s intent is to satisfy his desires or for physical pleasure it is disgraceful and even if his intent is to have children who will serve him and fill his place it is not praiseworthy; rather one’s intent should be to have children who will serve Hashem or have intent to fulfill the mitzvah of onah like a person who pays a debt. Similarly, regarding conversation, even if one discusses matters of wisdom, his intent must be to serve Hashem or something that will lead to service of Hashem. The rule is that one must pay attention to his ways and weigh matters carefully in his mind and if he sees that something will lead to service of Hashem he should do it and if not, he should not do it. One who follows this path is constantly serving Hashem.

          Siman 230 Seifim 5

1. One who davens about something in the past, e.g. one who enters a city and hears screams and prays: יהי רצון שלא יהא קול זה בתוך ביתי or if one’s wife is pregnant and he prays: יהי רצון שתלד אשתי זכר , has prayed in vain. Rather, one prays about future matters and gives thanks regarding the past. For example, one who enters a city should pray: – יהי רצון צלפניך ה’ א
לוקינו שתכניסני לכרך הזה לשלום . If he entered in peace he should say: מודה אני לפניך ה’ א-לוקינו שהכנסתני לכרך הזה לשלום . When one is prepared to leave he should pray: יהי רצון מלפניך ה’ א- לוקינו שתוציאני מכרך זה לשלום . If he left in peace he should say: מודה אני
לפניך ה’ א-לקי שהוצאתני מכרך זה לשלום וכשם שהוצאתני לשלום כן תוליכני לשלום וכו’ ברוך אתה ה’ שומע תפלה . This is tefilas haderech whose laws were discussed in siman 110.

2. One who is about to measure his grain should pray: יהי רצון מלפניך ה’ א-לקי שתשלח ברכה בכרי הזה . When he begins to measure he should say: ברוך השולח ברכה בכרי הזה . If he measured and then prayed it is a prayer in vain since blessing is only found on those items that are hidden from view.

3. One who enters a bathhouse should pray: – יהי רצון מלפניך ה’ א לקי שתכניסני לשלום ותוציאני לשלום ותצילני מהאור הזה וכיוצא בו לעתיד לבא When he exits in peace he should say: מודה אני לפניך ה’ א- לקי שהצלתני מהאור הזה

4. One who will let blood should pray: יהי רצון מלפניך ה’ א-לקי שיהא עסק זה לי לרפואה כי רופא חנם אתה and afterwards he should say: ברוך רופא חולים

5. A person should accustom himself to say, “Everything Hashem does, He does for good.”

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