Siman 235 Seifim 4
1. The time to read shema at night is when three small stars appear. On a cloudy day one should wait until one is no longer doubtful whether it is night. If one read shema earlier he should read it again without the berachos. If the tzibbur reads shema while it is yet day one should read shema together with the berachos as well as shemone esrei with them and when the correct time arrives one should read shema again without the berachos. One should not repeat shemone esrei at night even though the tzibbur davened early unless he is accustomed to other acts of piety and asceticism so that it does not appear haughty that he is davening again.
2. It is prohibited to eat half an hour before the time for krias shema. If one began to eat after that time arrived he must interrupt to read shema without the berachos and then resume his meal. Later he will read shema again with the berachos and daven shemone esrei. It is unnecessary to interrupt to daven shemone esrei since he already began to eat but if he did not begin to eat he must interrupt even if he washed his hands. If there will not be time to daven he must interrupt his meal even for shemone esrei.
3. L’chatchila one should read shema immediately after the appearance of stars and the time continues until midnight. If one delayed and did not read it at that time but it is still before amud hashachar he has fulfilled his obligation.
4. One who read the nighttime shema after amud hashachar but before sunrise has not fulfilled his obligation unless he was not able to read earlier due to circumstances beyond his control, e.g. he was drunk, ill, etc. One who will read during this time does not recite השכיבנו since once it is past amud hashachar it is no longer the time when people go to sleep. The other berachos may be recited which are the two before shema and the beracha of אמת ויציב until השכיבנו
Siman 236 Seifim 4
1. At night one recites two berachos before krias shema and two afterwards.
2.One should not speak between the beracha of geulah and shemone esrei and even those who have the custom to recite eighteen pesukim and יראו עינינו should not interrupt between that beracha and shemone esrei. However, the announcement of Rosh Chodesh that the shaliach tzibbur makes between kaddish and shemone esrei does not constitute an interruption since it is necessary for davening. Similarly, one may reciteברכו for someone who did not hear it and it is not considered an interruption. See above siman 69. I have seen meticulous people who have the custom to stand when they recite the 18 pesukim of ברוך ה’ לעולם וכו’ and it is a proper custom since it was enacted in place of shemone esrei, accordingly, it is appropriate to stand during its recitation.
3. If one finds the tzibbur reading shema and about to say shemona esrei one should daven with them and then read shema with the berachos.
4.Following the beracha of שומר עמו ישראל one answers אמן to his own beracha but one does not answer אמן to the beracha of המלך בכבודו (See above siman 215).
Siman 237 Seifim 1
1. There is no chazaras hashatz during ma’ariv. (We do not “fall on our face” after ma’ariv.)
Siman 238 Seifim 2
1.One must be more careful to study Torah at night than during the day and one who wastes the night is subject to severe punishment.
2. If one has a set amount of time to study Torah each night and during the day he was busy and could not complete his course of study, he must make it up immediately that night.
Siman 239 Seifim 2
1. When one is on his bed he should read the first paragraph of shema and recite the beracha המפיל חבלי שינה על עיני וכו‘ One should read shema close to bed and afterwards he should not eat, drink or speak; rather he should go right to sleep as the pasuk says: אמרו בלבבכם על משכבכם ודומו סלה . See above siman 63 whether it is permitted to read shema while lying down. If one read shema and could not immediately fall asleep he should continue to read shema one time after another until he falls asleep so that the reading is juxtaposed to sleeping. There is no beracha that is recited on krias shema at night. One should also say: יושב בסתר עליון. ואומר ה’ מה רבו צרי עד לה’ הישועה ואומר ברוך ה’ ביום ברוך ה’ בלילה ברוך ה’ בשכבנו ברוך ה’ בקומנו ויאמר ה’ אל השטן יגער ה’ בך השטן וגו’ ה’ שומרך וגו’ מעתה ועד עולם בידך אפקיד רוחי וגו’ יברכך ה’ וגו’ עד וישם לך שלום and השכיבנו until the conclusion.
2.When one takes off a garment he should not pull the bottom upsince that will leave him naked. Rather he should pull it off from his head, cover the bottom half of his body with a sheet and climb into bed.