Laws of Shabbat Siman 242..(in progress)

Siman 242 Seifim 1

1. Even one who requires [the support of] others, if he has a small amount of his own, needs to energize himself to honor the Sabbath; [the Sages] did not say “Make the Sabbath like a weekday, but do not make yourself reliant on people,” except to one for whom the times are very pressing. Therefore, one needs to be frugal on other days in order to honor the Sabbath, based on the edict of Ezra that we should launder [our] clothes on the fifth day of the week out of honor for the Sabbath. Rema: We have the custom to knead enough [dough] to take the priestly dough gift at home, [in order] to make from it loaves with which to break bread on the Sabbath and Holy Days (supported from the Mordekhai in the beginning of tractate Rosh Hashanah), and this is out of honor for the Sabbath and Holy Days, and one should not alter [this practice]. There are those who write that in a few places they had the custom to eat mulyeta, which we call pashtida,[1] on the night of the Sabbath, in memory of the Manna which was covered above and below (Jacob ben Moses Moelin; but I did not see reason to be concerned about this [custom].)

Siman 243 Seifim 2

1. A person should not rent his bathhouse to a Cuthean, because it is known to be his, and this Cuthean is doing work in it on the Sabbath; for a bathhouse in general is not sublet out… (meaning, a subletter is one who works in order to take a part of that which he profits the owner) … and [people] will say that the entire income is the Jew’s, and he has hired the Cuthean for so much per day, and it comes out that the Cuthean is doing work as an agent of the Jew. However, a field is permitted [to be rented out], for it is indeed common to take over a field as a subletter , and even though [people] know that it is the Jew’s, they will say that the Cuthean took it over as a subletter, and is working for himself. A [commercial public] oven has the same law as a bathhouse, and a mill has the same law as a field. Rema: And even though the Cuthean only took it over for a third or a fourth [of the profits], and the Jew derives benefit from what the Cuthean does on the Sabbath, it is permissible, for the Cuthean is working on his own behalf. (Beit Yosef quoting Maimoni Chapter 7, and Beit Yosef Section 245 quoting a Talmudic discussion).

2 . Even a bathhouse or an oven, if one rented them out year after year, and the matter therefore became publicized that [the owner] does not usually hire workers, but rather rents [the premises] out to them; or if it is the practice of most of the people of that place to rent out to them or to give it over to them as subletters, it is permissible to rent them out to a Cuthean or to give them to him as a subletter.Rema: And even in a place where [renting out] is forbidden, if the bathhouse or oven are not owned by a Jew, but rented from a Cuthean, and he goes back and rents them to a Cuthean, it is permissible, since it is not known to be the Jew’s (Or Zarua quoting the Geonim). Similarly, if there is a bathhouse in a residence, and noone washes in the bathhouse except for those in that residence, and they know that a Cuthean has rented it, it is permissible (Beit Yosef quoting Israel Isserlin, Chananel ben Chushiel and Or Zarua) And if he acted improperly and rented it out in a place where it is forbidden, some say that its profit is permitted (Beit Yosef quoting the Geonim), and some say that it is prohibited (Mordekhai, first chapter of [tractate] Shabbat), and this is the essential [law]. (And see below at the end of Section 245.)

Siman 244 Seif 1 (a):
One may stipulate with a gentile to do work and agree
on how much he will be paid for the job, and then it is
permitted for the gentile to perform the job on Shabbos
since he is doing it out of his own interest. This is true if
the work is done in private and people do not realize
that the work is being done for a Jew, but if it was
known and publicized it is prohibited since one who
observes the gentile working will not know that the
gentile is being paid for the job and will mistakenly think
that the Jew hired the gentile to work on Shabbos. For
this reason if one stipulates with the gentile to build him
a house, a wall or to harvest his field and the job is
within the city or the techum, it is prohibited to allow him
to do the job on Shabbos since others may not realize
that the gentile is a contractor rather than a day laborer.Even if one lives amongst gentiles, there is a concern
for guests who are visiting or that the members of
one’s household will suspect him of wrongdoing. If
the job is beyond the techum and there is no other
city within the techum of where the job is being done
it is permitted. Regarding a gentile who brings a
Jew’s flock into his pen (see below siman 537:14).

Siman 242 Seif 2:
It is prohibited for a gentile to chisel stones or fix
beams since the work is done for something
attached to the ground. If they did this work the
items should not be used in the construction of the
building. According to some if it is not known that
the objects belong to a Jew it is permitted.

Siman 244 Seif 3:
If gentiles built a house for a Jew in violation of the
prohibition it is appropriate for one to be stringent
and refrain from entering the building. However, if
the Jew stipulated with the gentile not to work on
Shabbos and the gentile did so anyways to quickly
finish the job one need not be concerned. See below
siman 543.

Siman 244 Seif 4:
Work done in public on something that is known to
belong to a Jew, e.g. a boat is treated the same as
work on items attached to the ground.

Siman 244 Seif 5:
If one hired a gentile for a year or two to write or weave
for him garments, he may write or weave on Shabbos as
if he was hired to write a book or to weave a garment in
which case he may work when he chooses. This is true
if one allows him to refrain from working on some days
and he may not work in the Jew’s home. There is an
opinion that prohibits hiring a gentile for a fixed period
of time. This is true only if he was hired to do a specific
task, for example, to weave a garment or to write a sefer
but if he was hired to do any melacha that is needed
during the period of employment, according to all
opinions it is prohibited as will be explained at the end
of siman 247.

Siman 244 Seif 6:
A Jew who purchased the right to collect the tax may hire a
gentile to collect taxes on Shabbos if he is a contractor,
meaning that they stipulate that for every 100 dinarim that
are collected he will be given a percentage. Similarly, he
can lease the taxes for all the Shabbosos to the gentile and
the gentile will keep the profits from Shabbos for himself.
We are not concerned that someone will think that he is
working for the Jew, since when facing a financial loss
such as this, this concern is put aside. A Jew who is in
charge of the currency is subject to the same halacha as
the one in charge of taxes even though when making coins
it produces a loud noise, see below siman 252. The Jew
should be careful not to sit next to the gentile when he
works on Shabbos making coins or collecting taxes.

Siman 245 Seif 1 (a):
If a Jew and gentile own a field, oven, bathhouse or water
mill as partners, or if they are partners in a store that sells
merchandise, if they stipulated when they formed their
partnership that the gentile will take the profits that are
earned on Shabbos whether large or small, and the Jew will
take the profits from another day exclusively, their partnership
is permitted. If they did not stipulate when they formed their
partnership, when it is time to divide the profits the gentile
should take all of the profits from the Shabosos and the
profits from the remaining days should be shared equally. If
the amount that was earned on Shabbos is not known the
gentile should take 1/7 of the profits and they should split the
remainder.Some are lenient, b’dieved, if they did not stipulate at
the outset but spilt the profits evenly and it appears to
me that one may be lenient if it involves a significant
loss. According to some authorities this discussion
relates to a partnership where each person works on a
separate day but when they both work together during
the week and on Shabbos the gentile works by himself it
is permitted to share the profits evenly since the gentile
is working out of his own self-interest and the Jew does
not benefit from the work since that work is not his
responsibility. However, he may only take the profits
from Shabbos if it is paid in one lump sum with the rest
of the weekly profits.

Siman 245 Seif 2:
If they stipulated from the outset, and when it comes time to
divide the profit the gentile agrees to split the profits equally,
it is permitted.

Siman 245 Seif 3:
If they did not stipulate from the outset, the situation could be
rectified by the seller refunding to them the money they gave
him or they can sell it to another person and then repurchase
it as partners with the necessary stipulation. If they formed a
partnership in a store and did not stipulate, each partner will
take back his share thereby nullifying the partnership and
then they should reconstitute the partnership with the
necessary stipulation. If they received land to work as partners
they must dissolve the partnership and forgo any claims they
have against one another and then reconstitute with the
necessary stipulations. If one is interested in leasing his share
to a gentile for Shabbos or to hire him as a contractor it is
permitted as was explained above at the end of siman 244
regarding taxes and currency that is permitted and certainly in
this case it is permitted since he has a gentile partner.

Siman 245 Seif 4:
A Jew may give money to a gentile to deal with, even if the
gentile will do business on Shabbos and will share the profits
with the Jew since the gentile is not obligated to work on
Shabbos that we would conclude that the gentile is acting as
his agent. Additionally, it is not discernible whose business
this is. This is true only in this case where the gentile is the only one who is doing business with the money but if each
one works on a separate day and the Jew must work one day
in exchange it is prohibited. Regarding a Jew has collateral
from a gentile see below siman 325:2-3.

Siman 245 Seif 5:
It is permitted to give a gentile merchandise to sell if
he fixes wages for him as long as he is not
instructed to work on Shabbos. If a Jew took an
oven from a gentile as security for a loan and the
gentile agreed that what he earns from the oven
will be given to the Jew as interest on the loan, it is
permitted for the Jew to take that money since the
work takes place on the gentile’s property and the
Jew has no portion of it. Additionally, the Jew is not
instructing him to work on Shabbos and the gentile
is working out of his own self-interest to fulfill the
condition of the loan.

Siman 245 Seif 6:
If gentiles baked in the oven of a Jew on Shabbos
against his will and they gave him bread as
payment, it is prohibited to benefit from that bread.

Siman 246 Seif 1:
It is permitted to lend or rent one’s utensils to a gentile even if
he will perform melacha with them on Shabbos, since one is
not commanded to assure that one’s utensils are not used on
Shabbos. Some maintain that utensils used for melacha, for
example a plow or something similar, may not be rented to a
gentile on erev Shabbos. On Thursday it is permitted to lease
it to him as long as the money that one takes is not for
Shabbos exclusively. It must be taken b’havla’ah, meaning
that one should lease it for a month or a week. It is permitted
to lend it to him even on erev Shabbos. The latter rationale is
more correct. It is permitted to lend him utensils on erev
Shabbos even if one stipulates that the gentile will lend
something to the Jew in return and we do not consider the
agreement to be essentially a rental agreement.

Siman 246 Seif 2:
It is prohibited to lend a utensil to a gentile on Shabbos, and
even on erev Shabbos, if it is almost dark and there is not
enough time for the gentile to remove it from the Jew’s home
before dark. The reason is that the observer will think that the
Jew instructed him to remove it from his home.

Siman 246 Seif 3:
It is prohibited to lease or loan one’s animal to a gentile so that
it should work on Shabbos since a person is commanded that his
animal should rest on Shabbos. It is permitted to lease it or lend
it with the stipulation that it should be returned before Shabbos
but it is not effective to stipulate with the gentile that he should
rest the animal on Shabbos since the gentile is not trustworthy
about this. If one lent or leased the animal to a gentile and
stipulated that he must return it before Shabbos and then he kept
it for Shabbos, the owner should declare, even to himself, the
animal is ownerless before Shabbos or he should declare that his
animal is transferred to the gentile in order to avoid violating a
Biblical prohibition. If one chooses he may declare the animal
ownerless in the presence of three people similar to the standard
halacha of hefker. Nevertheless, no one is permitted to take
possession of the animal since his intent is to avoid violating
Shabbos. This requirement applies only on Shabbos but on Yom
Tov one is not commanded that his animal should rest.

Siman 246 Seif 4:
If a Jew leased bulls to a gentile for plowing and he plowed with
them, according to some it is permitted if the gentile accepted
liability for the animal if it dies, is robbed or stolen or goes up or
down in value. Some maintain that since the gentile may not sell
the animal it is considered the Jew’s animal (and see below in
this siman).

Siman 246 Seif 5 (a):
If a Jew and gentile are partners in the ownership of an animal it
is permitted for the gentile to use the animal on Shabbos by
stipulating from the beginning when the animal was purchased
that the gentile will use it on Shabbos and the Jew one day
during the week. If they did not make this stipulation it is
prohibited even if they made the stipulation later. If one lends
the animal to a gentile as a full-fledged loan, i.e. the gentile may
sell it if he chooses without permission from the Jew and set its
value as a debt upon the gentile and responsibility for the bull is
upon the gentile it is permitted. Some are lenient even if the
gentile may not sell the animal as long as they set its value as a
debt upon the gentile and the gentile designates the animal as
an “apotiki  (in other words payment for the debt will come from
here) to the Jew. Alternatively, he may give it to him as
collateral but may not stipulate, “from now on.” Some permit
this if the Jew warned the gentile not to do melacha with it on
Shabbos and if he does he will be fully liable for the animal even
from circumstances beyond his control. This stipulation should
be recorded in legal documents so that if the gentile decides to
use the animal on Shabbos it is not the Jew’s animal since it was
transferred into the possession of the gentile as far as
responsibility for even unavoidable accidents.All the different leniencies are halachically proper and
one may choose to follow any of them. Even if the
animal belongs exclusively to the Jew, it is treated the
same as if it was owned in partnership with a gentile
and one should publicize that it was done in a
permissible manner.

Siman 247 Seif 1:
It is permitted for one to send a letter with a gentile, even on
erev Shabbos as it is getting dark as long as one fixed his
wages and he may not be instructed to travel on Shabbos. If
his wages were not fixed and there is no  בי דואר (meaning a
person who receives all the letters and distributes them to the
recipients) in town, it is prohibited to send the gentile even on
Sunday. If there is a  בי דואר in town the gentile may be sent
even on erev Shabbos as long as there is enough time for
him to reach the house that it closest to the city wall. Some
permit sending the gentile even if his wages were not fixed if
he is sent on Thursday or earlier and one may rely on his
opinion if it is necessary.

Siman 247 Seif 2:
If one stipulated that he will pay him, even though he did not
specify how much he will pay, it is considered as though he fixed
his wages since the gentile relies on that commitment and
working out of his own self-interest. However, if he is hired
without a commitment, even though one has intent to pay him, it
is prohibited since he is not relying on the commitment and is
working for the Jew.

Siman 247 Seif 3:
If he was hired for a number of days and they fixed an amount
he would be paid for each day that he goes and returns but they
don’t set which days he goes, it is prohibited for him to go on
erev Shabbos since it appears as though they stipulated that he
should travel at that time.

Siman 247 Seif 4:
If the gentile transports the letter for free, even if it was given to
him on erev Shabbos, it is permitted since the gentile is acting on
his own volition and is merely expressing gratitude for something
the Jew did for him once and it is as if they fixed a wage. Some
authorities disagree and maintain that when the gentile delivers
the letter for free it is prohibited and it is best to be stringent
about this matter. If the gentile offers to deliver it on his own, it is
clear that his intent is to express gratitude and it is permitted.

Siman 247 Seif 5:
If the gentile was anyway traveling and the Jew handed him a
letter to transport, it is permitted in all cases.

Siman 247 Seif 6:
If one who hired an employee for a year or more, it is prohibited
to send him with a letter on erev Shabbos. However, if one hired
him only to deliver letters there are authorities who are lenient as
was explained above in siman 244.

Siman 248 Seif 1:
It is permitted to set out to sea, even on erev Shabbos if
one is traveling for a mitzvah. One should stipulate that
the boat should not travel on Shabbos and if the gentile
decides to travel anyway there is no issue. When traveling
for non-mitzvah purposes one may not leave within three
days of Shabbos. It is permitted to leave more than three
days before Shabbos even if the boat is pulled by animals,
and even if the water is not more than ten tefachim. It is
permitted even if the Jew will have to perform melacha to
conduct the boat. If the journey is short, for example, from
Tzur to Tzidon which is only a day’s journey it is permitted
to leave erev Shabbos in the morning, since it is possible to
reach one’s destination before Shabbos. In those places
where the custom is not to travel on erev Shabbos at all,
even a short distance, one may not travel on erev
Shabbos.

Siman 248 Seif 2:
The reason one may not set sail by boat within three days of
Shabbos is out of concern for oneg Shabbos, because during the
first three days one experiences distress and confusion. This
applies when one travels over salty waters, but when traveling by
river there is no distress for the travelers; therefore they may set
sail even on erev Shabbos. This allowance is in force as long as
one does not know that he will travel within ten tefachim of the
ground but when it is known that from the bottom of the boat
until the bottom of the water is less than ten tefachim it is
prohibited (to travel out of the techum) due to the techum
prohibitions. Similarly, in a boat where the Jew will be forced to
desecrate Shabbos it is prohibited to embark within three days of
Shabbos, even if they are traveling by river and will be ten
tefachim higher than the bottom of the river. It is not prohibited if
animals pull the boat by the river bank and it is not similar to the
prohibition against animals pulling someone by wagon.

Siman 248 Seif 3:
In circumstances in which it is permitted to travel by boat on erev
Shabbos, if one boarded the boat on erev Shabbos and
acquired shevisa, even if the boat embarks on Shabbos it is
permitted as long as one does not leave the boat after acquiring
shevisa. Some maintain that even if he disembarks it is
permitted. The reason is that once one acquired shevisa on erev
Shabbos it is permitted to board the boat on Shabbos and set
sail. Some recite kiddush on the boat and then return to their
home to sleep there before boarding the boat Shabbos morning
to set sail. This is the practice in some places and one should not
protest the practice. See below, siman 339 and 404.

Siman 248 Seif 4:
If one is traveling by caravan and everyone knows that it is
necessary to desecrate Shabbos since it is dangerous to
refrain from traveling on Shabbos, within three days of
Shabbos it is prohibited to begin traveling but earlier in the
week it is permitted. If afterwards a dangerous situation arises
that necessitates desecrating Shabbos in order to preserve life
it is permitted and does not constitute a desecration of
Shabbos. One who is moving to Eretz Yisroel and a caravan
is available on erev Shabbos may begin traveling with them
since he is traveling for the sake of a mitzvah. He should
stipulate that they may not travel on Shabbos and once they
are in the wilderness if they decide not to refrain from
traveling he may travel with them outside of the techum in
order to preserve his life. If they entered a city on Shabbos he
may travel throughout the city and even if they left him
outside of the city and he wants to enter the city it is
permitted, since he left for a mitzvah he is allotted 2000 amos
in every direction. According to some, any time one travels for
business or to visit a friend it is considered for the sake of a
mitzvah and only when one travels for pleasure is it
considered not for the sake of a mitzvah. For that reason the
custom in some places is for people to be lenient with regards
to embarking by boat or with a caravan within three days of
Shabbos since it is all considered for the sake of a mitzvah
and one need not protest against the practice and there are
authorities upon whom to rely.

Siman 249 Seif 1:
One may not travel on erev Shabbos more than
three parsaos so that one could reach his
destination with time left in the day to prepare for
the Shabbos meals, regardless of whether he is
going home or elsewhere. This applies when he is
in a settled area and can prepare food for Shabbos
but if in the place where he is it is not possible to
prepare for Shabbos or if the place is not safe to
dwell it is permitted to travel many parsaos. If one
sent a message that he is coming for Shabbos it is
also permitted to travel many parsaos.

Siman 249 Seif 2:
It is prohibited to arrange a meal or party on erev
Shabbos that one is not accustomed to eat during the
week. This applies even to a meal to celebrate an eirusin.
The reason is that it is an expression of honor for Shabbos
for one to enter Shabbos while hungry, and the prohibition
applies for the entire day. A seudah whose time falls on
erev Shabbos, e.g. a bris or a pidyon haben may be held
on erev Shabbos. This appears to me correct and is the
common custom. It is permitted for one to eat and drink
without arranging a meal. Even though it is technically
permitted for one to eat a meal that he normally eats
during the week, there is a mitzvah to refrain from
arranging a meal from the ninth hour and onwards.

Siman 249 Seif 3:
It is the habit of virtuous people to fast on erev Shabbos.

Siman 249 Seif 4:
If one accepted upon himself to fast on erev Shabbos one
must fast until tzeis hakochavim unless he specified when
he accepted upon himself to fast that he would only fast
until the tzibbur finishes davening. Some maintain that he
should not finish the fast; rather as soon as the tzibbur
leaves the Bais HaKnesses he should eat. Therefore, for a
private fast one should not “complete” the fast and it is
best if he stipulates this when he accepts upon himself the
fast but for a public fast he should “complete” the fast and
this is the custom. When fasting for a bad dream one
must fast until tzeis hakochavim.

Siman 250 Seif 1 (a):
One should rise early on Friday to prepare one’s
Shabbos needs.

Siman 250 Seif 1 (b):
Even if one has many servants to serve him one
should make an effort to personally prepare
something for Shabbos to honor it. R’ Chisda
would mince vegetables, Rabbah and R’ Yosef
would chop wood, R’ Zeira would kindle a fire
and R’ Nachman would prepare his home and
bring in utensils that are needed for Shabbos and
take out weekday utensils. Everyone should learn
from their example and should not think that this
compromises their honor since it is honorable to
honor Shabbos. Knives should be sharpened
before Shabbos since this also honors Shabbos
by preparing one’s self for eating.

Siman 250 Seif 2:
One should have a large quantity of meat, wine
and sweets according to his means.

Siman 251 Seif 1:
One who performs melacha on erev Shabbos
after mincha time will not see blessing from that
melacha. Some assume that this refers to mincha
gedolah while others assume that it refers to
mincha ketanah. This applies when one does
regular work but when it is done in a casual
manner, for the moment and it is not permanent
it is permitted. For that reason it is permitted to
write a friendly letter and anything similar.

Siman 251 Seif 2:
It is permitted to prepare one’s clothing and utensils
for Shabbos the entire day. One may also prepare his
friend’s clothing if it is needed for Shabbos if he does
not take payment. The same is true regarding one
who writes sefarim in the course of his studies. But it
is prohibited to write for a friend for payment. One
may cut his hair all day even from a Jewish barber.
One should slightly limit the time he spends studying
Torah so that he can prepare his Shabbos needs.

Siman 252 Seif 1:
It is permitted to begin a melacha on erev Shabbos close
to the onset of Shabbos even though it will not be
completed before Shabbos and will finish on Shabbos. For
example, to soak ink and herbs in water so that they soak
for the entire Shabbos, or to put bundles of flax in an oven
to whiten them, or to put wool into a vat that is not on the
fire and is sealed with clay. If it was on the fire, it would be
prohibited out of concern that he will stoke the coals and
even if it is not on the fire but the vat is not sealed with clay
it is prohibited out of concern that one will stir it with a
spoon and one who stirs a pot, even if it is not on the fire
has violated the prohibition against cooking on Shabbos. It
is permitted to set up a trap for undomesticated animals,
fowl and fish even if they become trapped on Shabbos. It is
permitted to sell merchandise to a gentile before Shabbos
and load him up as long as he leaves the doorway before
Shabbos begins. Some permit the gentile to remove items
on Shabbos if one designated for him a place in the Jew’s
home to store his merchandise but one should be stringent
about this. See below siman 325.

Siman 252 Seif 2:
It is permitted to give garments to a gentile launderer or hides
to a leather maker close to the onset of Shabbos if one set
with him a price or if he is working out of tovas hana’ah. One
may not stipulate that he should work on Shabbos and the
gentile must perform the melacha in his home. If a fee was
not fixed, it is prohibited for him to work on erev Shabbos.
See above siman 247 that there are authorities who disagree
if one works for free, meaning for tovas hana’ah. If one sees
them performing this melacha on Shabbos, if it is done out of
tovas hana’ah one must protest even if one gave them the
work many days before Shabbos.

Siman 252 Seif 3:
If the work was done in public and it is known that it is being
done for a Jew it is best to be stringent and prohibit it.

Siman 252 Seif 4:
If the fee was fixed it is permitted for a Jew to wear the
garment that a gentile made on Shabbos, since once the fee
is fixed the gentile works out of his own self-interest. Some
authorities prohibit wearing the garment if it is known that the
gentile completed the garment on Shabbos and one must
wait after Shabbos b’kedai she’ya’aseh and l’chatchila this is
the way one should conduct himself except when the garment
is needed on Shabbos when one may be lenient. If it is
possible that the garment was finished before Shabbos it is
certainly permitted. This is true only if the gentile sends the
garment to the Jew’s home but it is prohibited to pick up the
garment from the craftsman on Shabbos or Yom Tov. These
parameters apply for utensils that were made for a Jew but it
is permitted to pick up shoes from a gentile shoemaker as
long as they do not set a price for the purchased shoes.

Siman 252 Seif 5:
It is permitted to open a stream of water to one’s garden so that
it should flow during Shabbos. One may put a thick layer of eye
medication on one’s eye even though it is prohibited to apply it
on Shabbos. One may place incense under garments so that the
incense will burn over Shabbos even if the incense is in a utensil
since a person is not commanded to assure that his vessels
refrain from melacha. One may place barley in a vat to soak
them or to load the beams of a olive or wine press on olives or
grapes before Shabbos and the oil and wine that flows from
them is permitted (see below siman 320:2). Similarly, the liquid
that flows from half-ripe grapes and crushed ears of grain is
permitted. It is permitted to put wheat into a water mill before
the onset of Shabbos and there is no concern for the noise that is
produced and that people will suspect that so-and-so’s mill is
grinding on Shabbos. Some authorities prohibit the use of the
mill and anything else that produces loud noise and l’chatchila
this is the way one should conduct himself but in a circumstance
of loss one may be lenient as was explained above in siman
244. It is permitted to set a pendulum mechanism called a clock
on erev Shabbos even though it will make noise on Shabbos
signaling each hour since everyone knows that the clock is set
yesterday. See below siman 338.

Siman 252 Seif 6:
One may not go outside on erev Shabbos close to
nightfall with a needle in his hand or a quill out of
concern that he will forget and transfer it. It is
permitted to go out with tefillin close to dark since one
will not forget them.

Siman 252 Seif 7:
It is a mitzvah to check one’s pockets erev Shabbos
close to dark so that he should not leave something in
them that may not be transported on Shabbos.

Siman 253 Seif 1 (a):
Regarding a kirah whose shape resembles a pot upon
which one places a pot of food and there is room for two
pots, if it is fueled with gefes which is the refuse of olives or
wood, it is prohibited to place a food on there before
Shabbos for it to remain there unless the food is fully
cooked and would shrivel in a manner which is detrimental
so that there is no concern that he will stoke the coals or if it was raw and did not cook at all because one puts
out of his mind raw food until the next day and it can cook
overnight without stoking the coals at all. If it is partially
cooked but not fully cooked or even if it is fully cooked but
the food would improve if it shriveled, we are concerned
that he will stoke the coals, therefore it is prohibited to
leave the food on the fire unless the kirah was ,גרף
meaning that one removed all of the coals or ,קטם
meaning that one covered the coals with ash to reduce the
heat. If one placed raw meat it is permitted as though all
of the food was raw since a piece of raw meat will cause a
person to put it out of his mind. Even if the coals of the
kirah were not removed or covered with ash, it is permitted
to place a pot next to the kirah from the outside. If the
kirah is fueled with straw or stubble it is permitted to leave
food on the kirah even if the fuel was not removed or
covered with ash.If two kiros are coupled, one next to the other, with a partition of
earthenware separating them and in one the coals were
shoveled out or covered but in the other it was not, it is permitted
to place food on the one that was shoveled or covered even
though the one that was not shoveled or covered adds heat.
One may not leave food next to a tanur even if it was fueled with
straw or stubble; even if it was shoveled or covered if it is still yad
soledes bo and certainly one may not leave food inside or on top
of it. A kupach that has room for one pot of food, which was
fueled with straw and stubble, is categorized as a kirah and if it
was fueled with olive refuse or wood it is categorized as a tanur.
(Our ovens are categorized as a kirah.) If one forgot and left
food on the fire but the food was fully cooked it is permitted even
if shriveling would be beneficial to the food. If the food began to
cook but was not fully cooked it is prohibited until after Shabbos.
If one intentionally left the food on the fire it is prohibited in both
cases until the time elapses after Shabbos during which the
cooking could have been done. If a gentile returned the food it
is the same as if a Jew forgot and left the food on the fire. If a
Jew returned the food it is as if a Jew intentionally left it on the
fire but if shriveling will be detrimental it is permitted since he
d oes not benefit from the prohibition.Some maintain that if the food is cooked k’ma’achal ben
drosai (the name of a person who ate food that was not fully
cooked) or if it was fully cooked even though shriveling would
be beneficial, it is permitted to leave the food on a kirah or
even on a tanur even if it is fueled with olive refuse or wood
and even if the coals were not shoveled out of covered with
ash. The requirement to shovel out or cover the coals as well
as fueling a fire with straw and stubble refers to a food that
began to cook but did not reach the level of ben drosai. It
also applies when one removed food from a fire and wants to
return it. If one forgot and left a food on the fire that began
to cook and did not reach ma’achal ben drosai it is
prohibited and this is certainly true if one intentionally left
food on a fire. The custom is to be lenient in accordance with
the latter opinion. This discussion relates to shehiyah in a
circumstance in which the pot sits on an iron shelf or on
stones rather than on the coals but in the event that the pot is
insulated on top of coals it is prohibited according to all
opinions. Soma authorities maintain that even when the pot
is on the fire as long as it is exposed on top it is not
considered hatmanah – insulated, and is permitted. This is
the custom but we are careful to detach it somewhat from the
fire so that a Jew should be able to remove it on Shabbos. If
it was not detached from the fire and rests on the fire on
Shabbos, a gentile should remove the pot. If a gentile is not
available it is permitted for a Jew to remove it but he must be
careful to take it gently so that the coals do not move. If one
was gentle but coals moved anyways it is permitted since it
was not done intentionally.

Siman 253 Seif 2 (a):
If one removed or covered the coals in a kirah and
removed the pot of food from the kirah, even on
Shabbos, it is permitted to return the food to the kirah
as long as it is still boiling, it remained in his hand, he
did not place it on the ground, and he had intention
to return it. It may only be placed on the kirah but not
inside the kirah. Regarding a tanur, it is prohibited to
return the pot of food even if the coals were removed
or covered and the same is true concerning a kupach
that was fueled with olive refuse or wood.This applies only when the food is fully cooked and it may
even be returned to a different kirah but if the food is not
fully cooked it may not be returned even to the same kirah.
Some authorities maintain that this restriction applies when
one removed the food from the kirah before Shabbos and
wants to return it on Shabbos but if it was removed on
Shabbos, even if it was placed on the ground it is
permitted. The custom is to follow the lenient opinion
when it concerns our ovens that have the status of a kirah
and they rely on the lenient position but it is correct to be
stringent. If the food cooled down according to all
opinions it is prohibited to return it to the kirah. Some
authorities maintain that if food was removed from a tanur
i t may not be placed on pillows or blankets.There are authorities who maintain that if it is close to
dark or close to the recitation of borchu which is when
we accept Shabbos so that if the food were to cool down
there would not be sufficient time for it to boil before the
onset of Shabbos it is the same as Shabbos itself. Some
are lenient in accordance with this opinion and the
custom is to be lenient but it is appropriate to be
stringent when there is not such a great need. This
applies only to place the food on the kirah but to place it
next to the fire where it is yad soledes bo is permitted
even if it is right before dark. Regarding a tanur there is
no difference between placing it on the tanur or placing
it next to the tanur. However, this applies only if the
food could become yad soledes bo but if it cannot
become yad soledes bo it is permitted even on Shabbos
as will be explained below siman 318.

Siman 253 Seif 3:
If one wakes Shabbos morning and sees that the food is
burning and is concerned that it will burn more, he may
remove the food and place an old empty pot on the
kirah and then place the pot of food on top of the empty
pot. One must be certain not to place the pot of food on
the ground, and the food must be hot. (It was already
explained that the custom is to be lenient even if the
food was placed on the ground.)

Siman 253 Seif 4:
One should protest those who have the practice to
insulate during the day an urn of hot water and then
pour it into a pot of food if the food is shriveling. (See
below siman 318)

Siman 253 Seif 5 (a):
It is permitted to place on Shabbos on the rim of a
container of hot water a food that was fully cooked
before Shabbos, e.g. פאנדי”ש“ or something similar, in
order to warm it, since this is not the normal manner of
cooking. However, it is certainly prohibited to insulate
the pot beneath garments if the pot is on the container
of hot water. It is also prohibited to place it on a kirah
even if the coals were removed or covered since
chazarah is only permitted in the manner described
above. Some authorities permit one to place the food in
a tanur that was used for baking before Shabbos. Since
one did not insulate a food in the tanur but used it only
for baking before Shabbos, all that remains is some
residual heat and one need not be concerned that the
food will cook as long as the food did not cool off
entirely. Some authorities are stringent about this matter
but if the heat in the tanur is yad soledes bo it is
prohibited, see below siman 318. Regarding all of the activities that are prohibited, one may not even
ask a gentile to do them. Therefore, it is prohibited to ask a gentile
to heat a pot of food that cooled down, and if he did so the food is
prohibited for consumption even if it is cold. However, if the food
did not cool off entirely so that it is still fit for consumption and a
gentile heated it further the food is permitted for consumption.
Therefore, the practice is for gentiles to remove pots of food from
the tanur used for insulating and place them next to or on top of the
winter stove and when the maidservant later heats up that stove the
food heats up again but it is prohibited for a Jew to follow this
procedure. If the pots of food are still hot it is permitted to place
them next to the winter oven since we explained that our tanurim
have the halachic status of a kirah and placing food next to a kirah
in which the coals were not removed or covered shares the same
halacha of one from which the coals were removed or covered. We
already explained that the custom is to be lenient regarding
chazarah on Shabbos, even if the food was placed on the ground
and the same is true with regards to placing food next to a tanur
from which the coals were not removed or covered since the pot of
food remains hot and was fully cooked. The simple custom is to be
lenient about this and see below siman 318.

Siman 254 Seif 1:
Although it is permitted to leave raw meat on a fire, this allowance is
limited to where it will cook in a pot, but if it is roasting next to a fire
it is prohibited to leave it there close to Shabbos since it cooks
quickly and there is a concern that one will stoke the coals. This is
true regarding ox and goat meat, but meat from a kid or fowl that
are cut in pieces may be left roasting near a fire since we are not
concerned that he will stoke the coals since stoking the coals will
cause the food to burn since all it needs is the heat of the fire. If the
meat is in a tanur and the opening is sealed with clay, regardless of
whether it is kid or fowl meat that is whole or ox or goat meat, it is
permitted and we are not concerned that he will stoke the fire since
opening the tanur to stoke the coals will allow cool air to enter
cooling down the tanur and the meat will harden and ruin. There is
no difference whether the food is raw or partially cooked. If the torso
of the body is intact, even though the head and legs were severed it
qualifies as whole. Some are stringent and maintain that when the
oven is sealed everything is permitted but on an exposed fire
everything is prohibited. If the opening to the tanur is closed but not
sealed then there is a difference between kid and fowl and other
varieties of meat as explained and the custom is in accordance with
this opinion.

Siman 254 Seif 2:
It is prohibited to roast onions, eggs or meat on coals
unless they can roast during the day so that both sides
reach ma’achal ben d’rosai which is half-way cooked.
This is true even regarding kid meat. The reason is that
once the food is placed on the coals one’s interest is that it
should roast quickly even if it will burn, therefore, there is a
concern that he will stoke the coals. Once it roasted to the
point that the food has reached ma’achal ben d’rosai we
are not concerned that he will stoke the coals, even if it is
bull meat because there is no reason to stoke the coals
and ruin the meat at that point.

Siman 254 Seif 3:
If one violated the restriction or forgot and roasted a food
in violation of this halacha the food is prohibited.

Siman 254 Seif 4:
Fruit that is eaten raw may be placed around a pot even
though there is not sufficient time for it to roast before
Shabbos. However, one must be cautious not to return the
cover to the pot if it is removed after Shabbos or to place
something on the cover until it roasts since that will hasten
the cooking on Shabbos.

Siman 254 Seif 5:
One may not place, close to Shabbos, bread in an oven, unless
there is sufficient time for a crust to develop on the face that
touches the oven. One may also not place a cake by coals unless
there is sufficient time for the face towards the fire to develop a
crust. Anytime the loaf could be split and strands do not get
pulled it is considered as though it developed a crust. ופשטיד”א
and  פלאדי”ן  must develop a crust on both sides and the filling
inside must reach ma’achal ben d’rosai. If one placed them in
the oven close to Shabbos and it did not form a crust before
Shabbos, if it was done intentionally it is prohibited until b’k’dei
she’ya’aseh after Shabbos. If it was done inadvertently, and one
does not have other food to eat, it is permitted to remove the
quantity necessary for three meals and one may tell others who
do not have sufficient food that they may take the quantity of
bread necessary for three meals. When removing the bread, one
should not use the standard instrument that is used for that
purpose; rather one should use a knife or something similar so
that one should not follow the procedure that is followed during
the week. If it is not possible to remove the bread in an unusual
manner it may be removed with the standard instrument. If one
placed the bread in the oven with enough time to form a crust,
since one did not violate a prohibition, it may be removed in the
normal manner. If the breads are not needed for Shabbos it may
not be removed even in an unusual manner. This applies to an
oven that is not sealed with clay, but if it is sealed with clay or if
one is not baking for Shabbos but for use after Shabbos so that
there is time for the bread to bake, the decree that one may
stoke the coals does not apply.

Siman 254 Seif 6:
If one put bread in an oven on Shabbos, even intentionally, it
is permitted to remove it before it bakes so that one should
not violate a sekilah prohibition.

Siman 254 Seif 7:
Regarding our ovens that do not require the  method of
removing a loaf it is permitted to remove even more than
three loaves with a knife or something that pierces the bread
but one should not use the shovel (רחת) since it gives the
appearance of a weekday activity.

Siman 254 Seif 8:
One may not fill a pot with עססיות (a variety of beans that
grows in Eretz Yisroel but not in Bavel) or תורמוסין and place it
in a tanur before Shabbos as it becomes dark since these
foods do not require extensive cooking and one intends to eat
them after the passage of a small amount of time. Therefore,
even if they do not cook at all they are comparable to a food
that began to cook before Shabbos but did not fully cook that
may not remain in the oven. The same is true regarding a kirakirah and a kupach if the coals were not removed or covered. If one placed the pot of food in the oven even inadvertently
the food is prohibited after Shabbos until the passage of k’dei
she’ya’asu.

Siman 254 Seif 9:
Similarly, one may not full a container of water and place
it in a tanur on erev Shabbos as it is getting dark and if
one did so the water is prohibited until after Shabbos after
k’dei she’ya’asu.

Siman 255 Seif 1:
One may not start a wood fire close to dark unless the fire
takes hold of the wood so that the fire can burn
independently without the assistance of other wood. If it is
a single log the fire must grab hold of the majority of its
thickness and circumference. If the fire did not catch to this
degree it is prohibited to benefit from the fire on Shabbos
out of concern that one will stoke it and move the wood so
that the flame will burn better. When the fire took hold
before Shabbos one may warm himself by the fire and use
the light, whether it is on the ground or whether it is on a
lamp and even if it is fueled with a material that may not
be used for a wick.

2. There are authorities that maintain that concerning coal
even if the fire took hold on only part of it, it is permitted
since because they burn progressively.
Siman 255 Seif 3:
A fire fueled with pitch, sulfur, straw and stubble, even if
the fire took hold on only part of it, it is permitted. The
same is true regarding a fire fueled with reeds or date pits
that are scattered but if the reeds are bundled or the pits
are in a basket the fire must take hold to the point that it
burns independently. Some authorities maintain that the
opposite is true.

Siman 256 Seif 1:
When the Jewish people had their own settlements they would
blow six blasts on erev Shabbos in order to stop people from
doing work. It is the custom in holy communities that a
representative of the community makes an announcement about
half an hour or an hour before Shabbos to prepare for Shabbos
and this replaces the shofar blasts of the past and it is an
appropriate practice to observe in all places.

Siman 257 Seif 1:
It is prohibited to insulate a pot even with a material that does
not add heat, but during bein hashemashos pots may be
insulated. It is prohibited to insulate with a material that adds
heat even during the day and if one insulated a pot of food with
material that adds heat the food is prohibited even b’dieved. This
is limited to a cold food that becomes heated or if shriveling is
beneficial but if it merely maintains its heat it is permitted. Some
maintain that if one forgot and inadvertently insulated a food
with a material that adds heat it is permitted for consumption.
(Some authorities maintain that this prohibition is limited to
where one needs the food for the night meal but if one insulates
the food for the next day it is permitted to insulate it before
Shabbos with a material that adds heat and b’dieved one may
rely on this opinion as long as one does not become accustomed
to doing so.

Siman 257 Seif 2:
Even a food that is fully cooked may not be insulated
on Shabbos even in a material that does not add
heat. However, it is permitted to place utensils over a
food to protect it from mice or so that it should not
become dirty from dirt since one’s intent is not to heat
the food; rather the intent is to protect it. It is also
permitted to place a cover on a pot (See above siman
253).

Siman 257 Seif 3:
The following are materials that add heat: refuse of
olives and sesame, fertilizer, slat, lime and sand
whether they are moist or whether they are dry.
Straw, grape refuse, soft materials and grass add heat
when they are moist. The following are materials that
do not add heat: garments, fruit, dove’s feathers (or
other feathers), tufts of linen and sawdust. Some
maintain that it is permitted to insulate a food in rocks
even though they add heat since the practice is
uncommon and thus not subject to the Rabbinic
injunction.

Siman 257 Seif 4:
Even though it is not permitted to insulate a pot on Shabbos
even in a material that does not add heat, if one insulated a
pot before Shabbos and it became uncovered after Shabbos
began it is permitted to replace the cover. Similarly, one may
add insulation or remove the original insulation and replace it
with another insulation, regardless of whether the first
insulation is hotter or whether the second insulation is hotter.
Even if the pot was covered with sheets it may be covered with
גלופקרין. This is true when the food is fully cooked but if it is
not, it is prohibited to even add insulation since the added
insulation will cause the food to cook faster.

Siman 257 Seif 6:
It is permitted to insulate cold food on Shabbos in material
that does not add heat so that it should not become too cold
or to diminish its chill. It is prohibited to insulate even a cold
food with a material that adds heat even if one insulates the
food before Shabbos.

Siman 257 Seif 7:
Whenever insulating is prohibited even when the food is fully
cooked it is prohibited even if shriveling would be detrimental.
This is the halacha. Some authorities are lenient and contend
that if the food is completely raw or if it is fully cooked
insulating is permitted the same as it is permitted to leave
such a food on an open fire (שיהוי) as explained in siman
253. In a place that follows this custom one should not
protest the practice but one should not follow this practice in
other places.

Siman 257 Seif 8 (a):
Although it is permitted to leave a pot of food on a kirah
that has coals in accordance with the rules discussed in
siman 253, if it is covered with garments, even though
the garments do not add heat, nevertheless, since the
fire beneath it adds heat it is prohibited. However, if the
garments do not make contact with the pot it is
permitted even though the fire is beneath the pot.
Therefore, when one places a pot on a kirah or kupach
that contains coals but the bottom of the pot does not
touch the coals, it is she’hiyah and permitted in
accordance with the guidelines explained in siman 253.
If one placed a wide utensil that does not touch the sides
of the pot and then one placed garments over the top of
the wide utensil it is permitted since the garments only
touch the wider utensil and do not touch the utensil that
contains the food so it is not considered as though one
insulated the food. It is also permitted to place a pot of
food in our ovens when one adds a piece of raw meat
as long as the pot does not make contact with the coals
even though the opening of the oven is covered with
garments. Since the garments do not make contact with
the pot of food it is not considered insulating. The procedure used for insulating foods in our
countries by insulating food in the oven and sealing
the opening of the oven with clay is permitted
according to all opinions as was explained above in
siman 254 and will explained in below at the end
of siman 259. There is a mitzvah to insulate food
for Shabbos so that one could eat hot food on
Shabbos and this is a component of honor and
oneg Shabbos. Whoever does not believe in the
words of Chazal and prohibits eating hot food on
Shabbos is suspected of being an apikorus.

Siman 258 Seif 1:
It is permitted before Shabbos to place a utensil with cold
contents on a hot pot and it is not considered as though
one is insulating with a material that adds heat.

Siman 259 Seif 1:
Soft material (anything soft is called ,מוכין e.g. cotton,
pieces of soft wool torn from animals and shreddings from
a worn garment) that was inadvertently used to insulate a
pot may not be moved. One should shake the cover so
that the soft material will fall off on its own. An example
would be when the pot cover is partially exposed since this
is indirect movement of the material. If the soft material
was designated to insulate the pot of food it may be
moved directly. If one insulated the food with wool
shearings even if it was not designated to use for insulating
a pot it may be moved. This refers to shearings that are not
for sale but if one stored it away as merchandise to sell it
must be designated for use as an insulator and if used it
without designation one must shake the pot cover and let
them fall on their own. In other words, one takes the pot
cover which qualifies as a utensil even though the wool is
upon it without concern since the pot cover did not become
a base for the wool.

Siman 260 Seif 1:
There is a mitzvah to bathe one’s entire body but if he can’t
he should wash his face, hands and feet in hot water on erev
Shabbos. There is a mitzvah to wash one’s hair and cut one’s
nails on erev Shabbos. If one’s hair is long there is a mitzvah
to cut them and when cutting one’s nails they should not be
cut in order. One should start with the ring finger on one’s
left hand and with the pointer on the right hand and the
mnemonic is 4-2-5-3-1 on the left hand and then 2-4-1-3-5
on the right hand.

Siman 260 Seif 2:
When it is close to dark one should ask the members of his
household in a pleasant manner whether they separated
ma’aser, made the eruv, separated challah and he should
instruct them to light the Shabbos lights. In a place where
they do not separate ma’aser there is no reason to ask
whether they separated ma’aser.

Siman 260 Seif 1:
When there is a doubt whether it is night, which is bein
hashemashos (the amount of time it takes to walk three
quarters of a mil after shekiah. A mil is 18 minutes) one may
not separate ma’aser when there is a certain obligation, one
may not immerse utensils, one may not kindle lights nor may
one make an eruv techumin (See below siman 415:2), but
one may separate ma’aser from demai and make an eruv
chatzeiros (See below siman 393). It is permitted to instruct a
gentile to kindle lights for Shabbos and one may also ask him
to perform any melacha that is needed for a mitzvah or if one
is disturbed and troubled that it was not done. Similarly, one
who accepted Shabbos one or two hours before dark may ask
a gentile to kindle a lamp or do other things that are needed.

Siman 261 Seif 2 (a):
Some maintain that one must add from the
weekday to Shabbos and the time when this
must be done is from the beginning of
shekiah when the sun is no longer visible on
the ground until bein hashemashos and the
duration of this time is three and a quarter
mil. Siman 261 Seif 2 (b):
If one wants to add this entire time to Shabbos, he may
do so and if he wants to add only some of that time to
Shabbos, he may do so as long as he adds some time
from the week to Shabbos. The duration of bein
hashemashos is the amount of time it takes to walk
three-quarters of a mil which is the distance of 1500
amos, before dark. If one wants to accept Shabbos any
time after plag hamincha he may do so. (See below
siman 267)

Siman 261 Seif 3:
One who is not an expert at calculating these times
should kindle the Shabbos lights while the sun is
visible near the tops of the trees. On a cloudy day he
should kindle the lights while the roosters are sitting
on a beam during the day and if one is in a field
where there are no roosters he should kindle the lights
while the crows still sit during the day.

Siman 261 Seif 4:
After answering borchu, even if it is yet day, one may
not make an eruv or insulate food since he has
accepted Shabbos. For us the recitation of  
Mizmor Shir Leyom HaShabbat is comparable to answering borchu for
them.

Siman 262 Seif 1:
One should set his table and prepare his bed and all of his
other Shabbos needs so that everything will be prepared
and ready when he returns from the bais haknesses.
The
table should be set for the entire Shabbos and this is the
custom and one should not deviate from it.

    Siman 262 Seif 2:
One should make an effort to have nice clothing for
Shabbos. If that is not possible he should at least lower
them
(in the manner that wealthy people wear their
clothing in their home) as a display of dignity  

Siman 262 Seif 3:
One should wear nice clothing and rejoice as Shabbos
begins as one would go out to greet a king or a chosson
and kallah. R’ Chanina would wrap himself and stand as
Shabbos began and announce, “Let us go out and greet
the Shabbos Queen.” R’ Yannai would declare,   Boi Kalla Boi Kalla   ”
“     . One should don Shabbos clothing immediately
after bathing and this is an expression of honoring
Shabbos. For that reason one should not bathe until it is
close to Shabbos so that he could get dressed right away.

Siman 263 Seif 1:
One should be careful to make a beautiful lamp and
some people make it with two wicks, one for Zachor and
the other for Shamor. One may add additional lights
and kindle three or four and that is our custom. A
woman who forgot to kindle lights one time should,
for the rest of her life, kindle three lights since it is
permitted to add to a fixed number to correspond to
something else but one may not diminish from that
number.

Siman 263 Seif 2:
Both men and women must have lights kindled in their
home for Shabbos. Even someone who does not have
food to eat should borrow from neighbors to obtain oil
to kindle his lamp since this is part of oneg Shabbos.

Siman 263 Seif 3:
Women are more obligated in this mitzvah than men
since they are around and are involved in the household
needs. If one does not have the funds for Shabbos
lights and wine for kiddush the money should be used to
obtain the Shabbos lights. Similarly, if one cannot
afford Shabbos lights and Chanukah lights, Shabbos
lights take precedence since they promote peace since
there is no peace without light. (If one cannot afford
wine for kiddush and lights for Chanukah see below
siman 678.)

Siman 263 Seif 4:
One should not be quick to kindle the lights too
early in the day because it will not be recognizable
that the lights were kindled to honor Shabbos but
one should also not kindle the lights too late. If one
wishes to kindle the lights during the day and
accept Shabbos he may do so because as long as
he immediately accepts Shabbos it is not
considered too early as long as it is after plag
hamincha which is an hour and a quarter before
night. See below siman 267. If the light was
kindled during the day it must be extinguished and
rekindled for the sake of Shabbos.

Siman 263 Seif 5:
When kindling the lights one recites   Baruch Ata Hashem…asher kidishanu bemitzvotav vetzivanu leh

lehadlik ner shel Shabbat and this is the wording for
men and women. On Yom Tov when kindling lights one
must recite   lehadlik ner shel Yom Tov.
   . When Yom HaKippurim
does not coincide with Shabbos there is an opinion that
maintains that a beracha is not recited but see below
siman 610. One opinion maintains that the beracha is
recited before kindling and another opinion maintains
that the beracha is recited after kindling but in order that
it should be considered      Over Le’asiyatan
 one should not
benefit until after the beracha and one places his hand
in front of the light after it was kindled, one recites the
beracha and then removes his hand and this is
considered        Over Le’asiyatan
. This is the custom.

Siman 263 Seif 6:
Bachurim who leave their home to study Torah must kindle Shabbos
lights in their room with a beracha. However, one who is with his wife
does not kindle and recite the beracha in his room since his wife recites
the beracha on his behalf.

Siman 263 Seif 7:
A guest who does not have his own room nor does he have someone
lighting for him must contribute towards the host’s lighting.

Siman 263 Seif 8:
If two or three ba’alei batim eat together there are some authorities who
maintain that each one kindles his own lamp but others are uncertain
about this. It is appropriate to be cautious and refrain from reciting the
beracha out of doubt and only one person should recite the beracha.
This, however, is not our custom.

Siman 263 Seif 9:
Those who kindle lights in the corner of the house and then eat in the
courtyard, if the candles are not long enough to remain lit until night,
the beracha was recited in vain.

Siman 263 Seif 10:
According to Behag once the Shabbos lights are kindled Shabbos
begins and melacha is forbidden. Accordingly, some women have the
practice that after reciting the beracha and kindling the lights they drop
the wick in their hand used to kindle the lights on the ground rather
than extinguish it. According to some if she stipulates before lighting
that she does not want to accept Shabbos until the chazzan says borchu,
the stipulation is effective but others maintain it is not effective. Some
authorities disagree with Behag and contend that acceptance of
Shabbos does not happen when the lights are kindled; rather it occurs when one davens ma’ariv because once the chazzan says borchu everyone refrains from melacha. According to our custom the recitation of   “Mizmor Shir Leyom HaShabbat” is comparable to borchu. The custom is that the woman who kindles the lights accepts upon herself Shabbos unless she stipulates otherwise and even a mental stipulation is effective. Other members of the household may perform melacha until borchu. The primary lighting is the lights that are kindled by the table rather than the lights that are kindled elsewhere in the house. The lights must be placed in the location where they are kindled and may not be kindled in one place and then moved to another location.

Siman 263 Seif 11:
If an individual davens Shabbos davening while yet day, it is
prohibited for him to perform melacha even though the
community did not yet daven and he asserts that he did not
wish to accept Shabbos.

Siman 263 Seif 12:
If the majority of the tzibbur accepted Shabbos the minority is
drawn after them against their will.

Siman 263 Seif 13:
If someone arrives in a city on erev Shabbos and the tzibbur
already accepted Shabbos, even though it is yet day, if he has
money or other objects on him he must allow them to fall.

Siman 263 Seif 14:
If, on a cloudy day, the tzibbur erred and thinking it was dark
kindled lights and davened ma’ariv and subsequently, the
clouds dispersed and the sun shined, the tzibbur does not
have to daven again as long as they davened after plag
hamincha. If it was an individual who erred he must daven
again. Regarding melacha a tzibbur as well as an individual
are permitted to perform melacha since their acceptance of
Shabbos was done in error. Some authorities contend that
those who kindled lights are prohibited to perform melacha
but everyone else is permitted. Some authorities maintain
that the candle that was lit for Shabbos may not be touched
nor may additional oil be added and even after it is
extinguished it is prohibited for someone to touch it.

Siman 263 Seif 15:
One who delayed and did not recite mincha by the time
the tzibbur accepted Shabbos may not daven mincha in
that bais haknesses; rather he should go outside and
daven the weekday amidah there. This assumes that he
did not yet accept upon himself Shabbos with them but if
he responded and accepted Shabbos with them he may no
longer daven the weekday amidah and should daven
ma’ariv twice.

Siman 263 Seif 16:
If one arrives in the bais haknesses as they are about to
accept Shabbos one may daven mincha even though while
he is davening mincha they will accept Shabbos. There is
no issue with this since he began while it was permitted.

Siman 263 Seif 17:
Some authorities maintain that one who accepted Shabbos
before it became dark may ask a fellow Jew to perform
melacha on his behalf. It is permitted to benefit from that
melacha on Shabbos. Certainly on motzai Shabbos, one
who will daven later or whose seudah extends into the
night may ask another Jew who already davened and
recited havdalah to perform melacha, e.g. to kindle a light
or to cook for him and he is permitted to benefit and eat
from that melacha. This appears correct to me.

Siman 264 Seif 1:
One may not make a wick for Shabbos, whether for the
lamp on the table or whether it is placed anywhere else in
the house from material to which the flame will not attach
but will merely envelope or whose flame flickers, e.g. wool,
hair or something similar. Instead the wick should allow
the flame to attach to it, for example, combed flax, a linen
cloth, cotton, hemp or something similar. If one kindled
the light with one of the prohibited wicks, one may not use
that light. According to some authorities if one lamp is
fueled with material that is permitted it is permitted to use
the lamps lit with prohibited wicks. Similarly, in a place
that does not require light one may use lamps that use
forbidden materials and when necessary for Shabbos one
may be lenient, b’dieved.

Siman 264 Seif 2:
If one wrapped material that may be used around material
that may not be used and the intent was to thicken the wick
in order to increase the light, it is prohibited. If the intent
was to strengthen the wick so that it stands upright and
does not droop, it is permitted. For this reason it is
permitted to wrap usable material around bark or straw in
order to place the wick into glass. It is permitted to place a
grain of salt or a split bean on the opening of a lamp on
erev Shabbos so that the fire will burn nicely on Shabbos.

Siman 264 Seif 3:
One may only kindle the Shabbos lights with oil that is
drawn after the wick; therefore, one may not use pitch,
wax, cotton-seed oil, tail grease or cheilev. One may
also not use resin that has a foul odor that will cause
people to leave nor may one use balsam oil that a
fragrant odor, out of concern that one will take some oil
and thus violate the prohibition against extinguishing a
fire.

Siman 264 Seif 4:
Even if one added some olive oil to these other oils so
that they are now drawn after the wick they may not be
used.

Siman 264 Seif 5:
One may not kindle with liquid cheilev or fish entrails
but if one added some acceptable oil one may kindle
that mixture.

Siman 264 Seif 6:
Oils other than the ones mentioned may be used but it
is preferable to use olive oil.

Siman 264 Seif 7:
If one wrapped pitch, wax or cheilev around a wick it may
be kindled.

Siman 264 Seif 8:
The one kindling must kindle the majority of the wick that
emerges from the lamp.
Siman 264 Seif 9:
There is no need to singe the wick. Nevertheless, the
custom is to kindle the wick and then extinguish it so that it
should be scorched and the fire will then grab hold of it
nicely.

Siman 264 Seif 10:
One may not use rags even if they have been scorched.

Siman 265 Seif 1:
One may not place a perforated vessel filled with oil on the
opening of a lamp so that the oil will drip into it out of
concern that one will remove some oil and violate the
prohibition of extinguishing. If one attached the vessel with
lime or clay it is permitted since it is one vessel and people
will refrain from touching it due to the Shabbos
prohibition.

Siman 265 Seif 2:
A person may not fill a plate of oil and place it next to the lamp with some of the wick inside so that the lamp draws
its oil out of concern that one will remove some of the oil
from the plate.

Siman 265 Seif 3:
One may not place a vessel under a lamp to catch the
dripping oil since that nullifies the vessel from its use. It may
be placed there during the day but the oil that drips onto it
may not be used on Shabbos. It is prohibited to touch the
lamp that is burning while it is suspended even though one
does not move it. Although generally touching something
does not violate the prohibition of muktzah, nevertheless it is
prohibited out of concern that it will be moved and thereby
tilted.

Siman 265 Seif 4:
One may place a vessel under a lamp to catch the sparks
since there is no substance to them and it does not involve
nullifying a utensil from its use. One may not place water
into the vessel even before Shabbos since that hastens the
extinguishing of the sparks. It is permitted to add water to the
lantern that is kindled before Shabbos since one’s intent is not
to extinguish the fire; it is to raise the level of the oil. Some
maintain that even if one’s intent is to extinguish the fire it is
permitted since the water is not visible as it sits below the oil
and it involves only indirect extinguishing which is permitted
and this is the custom.

Siman 266 Seif 1:
If one was travelling and Shabbos is about to begin and
he has money as well as a donkey and a gentile
travelling with him, he should not place his money on
the donkey since he is commanded to assure that it rest
on Shabbos. Instead the money should be given to the
gentile to transport it for him. After Shabbos he may
take it from him even though he did not pay him for this
job and even though he gave it to him on Shabbos, it is
permitted. If one found a lost object one may not give it
to the gentile to transport unless he took possession of it
before Shabbos since it is then considered his item.

Siman 266 Seif 2:
If a gentile is not present one should place it on the donkey but
in order to avoid violating the prohibition of  (leading a
donkey) if there were to be an “uprooting” and “placing,” one
should place the item on the donkey after it “uprooted” a foreleg
and a leg so that there is no “uprooting” of the item. When the
animal stops one must remove the item and when it starts
walking again one may replace it on the back of the animal.
Some maintain that one must be cautious from leading the
animal with his voice while the wallet is on its back. He should
not ride on the back of the donkey and instead should walk. If it
is necessary to leave the techum out of fear of armed bandits or
other danger and even if one need not leave the techum, one
may sit on the back of the animal and ride it.

Siman 266 Seif 3:
If one is accompanied by a donkey as well as a deaf-mute,
someone insane and a child, the wallet should be placed on the
back of the animal rather than any of these three people.
Siman 266 Seif 4:
If one is accompanied by a deaf-mute and someone insane the
wallet should be given to the one who is insane since he does
not have any da’as.
Siman 266 Seif 5:
If the choice is someone insane or a child, it should be given to the one who is insane since the child will eventually possess
da’as. If the choice is someone deaf-mute or a child one can
give it to either one.
Siman 266 Seif 6:
Some maintain that when giving it to one of these people one
should place it on them while they are walking and remove it
when they have stopped. This applies only if one gives it to them
after dark but if one gives it to them before dark it may be
handed to them in any manner.

Siman 266 Seif 7:
If none of the above mentioned people are available he should
transport it in increments of less than four amos. This applies to
one’s wallet or lost object that one has already taken into his
possession but if it has not yet been taken into his possession he
may not do this.

Siman 266 Seif 8:
Some maintain that these allowances apply to someone who got
caught on the road and thought that he would reach his
destination before Shabbos but one who left shortly before
Shabbos and mistakenly transported something into the public
domain may not utilize these leniencies.

Siman 266 Seif 9:
When one reaches the outermost courtyard that is protected one
may remove the items that may be moved and regarding those
that may not be moved one must undo the ropes and allow them
to fall. If one was transporting glass that one may not move, for
example, cups used for blood-letting which are not usable on
Shabbos since they are repulsive, and if they fall to the ground
they will break, one may place beneath them pillows and
blankets. This is true for small packages where it will be possible
to eventually remove the pillows and blankets but if the packages
are large and one will not be able to remove the pillows and
blankets, one may not place them beneath the fragile package
since that nullifies the vessel from its use. Instead one must
release it gently so that it should not break and one should not
leave it on the back of the animal since it will cause the animal
distress.

Siman 266 Seif 10:
If it became dark and one is wearing his tefillin or if he is
sitting in the bais hamidrash in the field and it becomes
dark, he should cover them until he reaches home and if
there is a house near the wall in which the tefillin will be
protected he should leave them there.
Siman 266 Seif 11:
If one was carrying a package on his shoulder and
Shabbos began, he should run all the way home. He must
specifically run and may not walk slowly out of concern
that without a reminder he may “uproot” and “place
down” the object since he may unwittingly stand but if he
runs that will serve as a reminder. When he reaches home
in order that he should not stand momentarily and thereby
transport the item from the public domain to a private
domain he should throw the package in an unusual
manner, e.g. from his shoulder or backwards.

Siman 266 Seif 12:
Some maintain that this is allowed only for a package to
the exclusion of a wallet but others permit it even for a
wallet. If one forgot that he is carrying his wallet and is in
his house he may go to a room to untie his belt so that it
should fall in a hidden location. If he realizes in the
market, it is prohibited to carry it home. He should untie it
in the market so that it falls and instruct a gentile to guard
it and there is no issue if the gentile carries it to the owner’s
home. See below siman 310 for what to do if the wallet is
sewn onto one’s garment.

Siman 266 Seif 13:
If one finds a wallet on Shabbos it is prohibited to take it
even though one is concerned that someone else will take it.

Siman 267 Seif 1:
We do not “fall on our faces” during mincha on erev
Shabbos.

Siman 267 Seif 2:
Ma’ariv should be davened earlier than during the week
and from plag hamincha one may kindle the Shabbos
lights and accept Shabbos during ma’ariv and immediately
eat the seudah (See above siman 233 how to calculate
when is plag hamincha).



Siman 267 Seif 3:

In the beracha of השכיבנו one does not conclude with the words שומר עמו ישראל, instead when one reaches the words ובצל כנפיך תסתירנו he should recite ופרוס סכת שלום עלינו ועל ירושלים עירך ברוך אתה ה’ הפורס סכת שלום עלינו ועל כל עמו ישראל ועל ירושלים.

Siman 268 Seif 1:

We recite ויכלו during ma’ariv.

Siman 268 Seif 2:

If one began reciting the weekday amidah he should
complete the beracha in which he realizes his error and then
begins the Shabbos beracha. It doesn’t matter whether he
realizes in the beracha of אתה חונן or one of the other
berachos. This applies for all the tefilos but some maintain
that in mussaf one stops even in the middle of the beracha.

Siman 268 Seif 3:

If one thought it was a weekday and he began with the intent
to recite the weekday amidah and after reciting the word and after reciting the word אתה but before the word חונן realized his error, he is considered to
have begun that beracha and should complete it. However, if
one knew that it was Shabbos and unintentionally recited the
word אתה, even in the morning when the middle beracha  
does not begin with the word אתה, he does not finish the
beracha of אתה חונן since it is considered similar to one who
errs between one Shabbos tefila and another since one could
אתה קדשת or אתה אחד.

Siman 268 Seif 4:
One who davened the weekday amidah on Shabbos and did
not mention Shabbos did not fulfill his obligation. If he
mentioned Shabbos during his amidah he fulfills his
obligation even though he did not recite a beracha specifically for Shabbos. In mussaf even if one only recited ונעשה לפניך את חובותינו בתמידי יום ובקרבן מוסף he has fulfilled his obligation.

 Siman 268 Seif 5: 

If one davened th e weekday the weekday amidah on Shabbos and did not
mention Shabbos: If he uprooted his feet he must go back to the
beginning but if he did not uproot his feet, even though he
finished davening he goes back to the beracha that discusses
Shabbos. (If a Shabbos. shaliach tzibbur forgets to mention Shabbos in
shacharis see above siman 126).

Siman 268 Seif 6:

If one said the wrong Shabbos amidah he is not required to
repeat the amidah. Some authorities maintain that if one recited
one of the others instead of mussaf or if one recited mussaf
instead of one of the others he must repeat the instead of one of the others he must repeat the amidah. 

Siman 268 Seif 7:

We repeat the paragraph of ויכלו because when Yom Tov and
Shabbos coincide it is not said in the amidah. Additionally, it is
repeated to discharge the obligation of those who do not know
how to say it. It should be said out loud while standing.

Siman 268 Seif 8:

Thee shaliach tzibbur recites ברכה אחת מעין שבע but individuals do
not recite it. If an individual wants to be stringent he may recite it
without the opening and concluding beracha and the custom is
for the tzibbur to recite it with the shaliach tzibbur without the
opening and concluding beracha.

Siman 268 Seif 9:

When Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, Yom Tov is not mentioned in
thee  beracha in  (meaning the beracha of אל עליון )

Siman 268 Seif 10:

מעין שבע is not recited in a chosson’s house or a mourner’s house
since the concern of people arriving late and being subject to
harm is not applicable. harm is not applicable.

11. On Shabbos that falls on Yom Tov it is recited.

Siman 268 Seif 12:

One may not speak during the recitation of ויכלו  or during the shaliach tzibbur’s recitation of  מעין שבע.

Siman 268 Seif 13:
If one davened the weekday amidah without
mentioning Shabbos or if he didn’t daven altogether
but heard the shaliach tzibbur recite  מעין שבע in its
entirety he fulfills his obligation. 

Siman 269 Seif 1:
The custom is to recite kiddush in the bais haknesses
but the one who recites kiddush should not taste the
wine, instead it should be given to a child since
kiddush is recited where one will eat his meal (see
below siman 273). The original enactment was for
the guests who ate and drank in the bais haknesses to
discharge their obligation. Nowadays even though
there are no guests in the bais haknesses the
enactment is not annulled and this is the rationale for
those places that recite kiddush in the bais haknesses.
It is preferable to adopt the practice of not reciting
kiddush in the bais haknesses and this is the custom
in Eretz Yisroel. The custom is to stand during the
recitation of kiddush in the bais haknesses.

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